Kỹ năng làm bài Đọc hiểu trong bài thi THPT Quốc gia môn tiếng Anh

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REFERECE QUESTIONS IN READING COMPREHENSION
Every reading passage contains a reference question. These questions will be easily identifiable
because the words that the authors want to a reference for will be in BOLD in the text and the
question.
Look at this simple question:
- Tom exercises and eats well. The doctor does not understand why he is always ill.
- What does the word he refer to?
A. A doctor B. Tom
- You should choose “B” because this is the reference or antecedent for the personal
pronoun
References have to be agree in gender and numbers
- Tom exercises and eats well. The doctor does not understand why she is always ill.
- She does not agree with its antecedent TOM in gender because Tom is a man’s name.
- Tom exercises and eats well. The doctor does not understand why they is always ill.
- They does not agree with its antecedent TOM in number because Tom is a singular
noun.
The following types of words have antecedents:
1/ Personal pronouns:
HE SHE THEY IT
HIM HER THEM IT
HIS HER THEIR ITS
HIMSESELF HERSELF THEMSELVES ITSELF
2/ Demonstrative pronouns:
THIS THESE
THAT THOSE
3/ Relative pronouns:
who whom whose which that
4/ Each/ Every: Both require a singular antecedents:
5/ Indefinite pronouns: each, either, neither
every one
some body
any thing
no where
6/ Collective nouns: family, team, class, government…
7/ Conjunctions: either ..or/ neither …nor . not only …but also
8/ pronouns: One/ Ones, other(s), another
Each of the previous words will have an antecedent. The antecedent will be a phrase or a clause
A single word antecedent is fairly simple.
What is a difference between a phrase and a clause.
- A phrase is a group of word that does not contain a subject doing a verb
“Crashing the car” is a phrase because we do not know: who is crashing the car”
- A clause is a group of words that has a subject doing a verb.
- “Bill has been playing tennis for two hours” is a clause because it has the subject “Bill
performing the verb “play”
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- Be aware that any of the sated words may have a word, a phrase or a clause as a reference.
Example 1:
- Researching the company you have an interview with is very important. It provides you
with the company’s background and helps you form questions and shows interest
What does It refer to?
- You should choose: “Researching the company you have an interview”
Example 2:
- Jim prefers that his college roommate does his chores on the weekend. It makes studying
during the week easier because the house is clean
What does It refer to?
- You should choose: “that his college roommate does his chores on the weekend”
Example 3: Molly has not had much sleep lately. She hopes that the baby will sleep
through the night. This will allow her to get some sleep and make tomorrow a better day.
- “She” refers to:…………………
- “This” refers to:…………………
- “Her” refers to:………………….
Example 4:
- Miss Scott, whose car broke down, called a taxi.
- whose refers to: …………………..
- The assignment that Tom forgot to do was worth several points
- that refers to:……………………..
Notice with the relative pronouns the antecedent comes right before the pronouns. What
noun is before “whose” ? What noun is before that
Unit 10 (Grade 12): ENDANGERED SPECIES
For a long time the image most people had of a gorilla was a dangerous-looking animal with big,
bared teeth. But researchers studying gorillas show a very different picture of mountain gorillas.
The animals are peaceful, gentle, sociable, and mainly plant-eating creatures.
Gorillas live in family groups. A typical group is led by the biggest and strongest grown-up male
gorilla. (1) He is called a silverback because the hair on a male's back turns from black to silvery
grey as he grows up. A silverback's group usually includes one or two sub-adult males and a few
females and (2) their young.
Mountain gorillas spend much of (3) their time eating. Their food includes a variety of plants,
along with a few kinds of insects and worms. At night the animals make a nest to sleep in. Many
lightweight gorillas nest in trees. The heavier (4) ones may nest in grasses on the ground. Babies
sleep with (5) their mothers at night.
Life for mountain gorillas is not always peaceful. (6) They are endangered and threatened by
civil wars in the smaller parts of Africa. Hunters kill (7) them for food. Their forests are cut
down for farmland, fuel, and housing. But many scientists, forest rangers and other concerned
people are working hard to protect mountain gorillas and (8) their habitats.
1/ he refers to ……….. 5/ their” refers to ………..
2/ their refers to ……….. 6/ they refers to ………...
3/ their refers to ………. 7/ them refers to ………..
4/ ones refers to …………. 8/ their refers to …………
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Unit 4 (Grade 11): VOLUNTEER WORK
Spring School is an informal school. (1) It provides classes to advantaged children in
HCM City. Around 30 street children live and study at the school and about 250 children with
special difficulties from District 1 regularly attend classes.
The Organization for educational development co-operated with Spring School to set up
English classes in 1998. Dane, theatre, singing and folk music classes were set up a year later.
Children from these classes participate in fundraising performances. (2) They raise money to
continue their English and Performance Arts classes.
Spring School requires volunteers to help organize (3) their fundraising dinner held
annually in June. (4) This is an exciting night in (5) which children dance, sing and play music
at one of the largest hotels in HCM City. (6) They also need foreign volunteers to contact
sponsors and help to expand the school activities. Volunteers are required from February until
July to help organize (7) these events.
(8) It is hoped that more schools like Spring School will soon be found in other cities in
Vietnam.
1/ it refers to ……….. 5/ which” refers to ………..
2/ they refers to ……….. 6/ they refers to ………...
3/ their refers to ………. 7/ it refers to ………..
4/ this refers to …………. 8/ these refers to …………
EXAMPLES OF REFERENCE QUESTIONS
Example 1:
People who want to become university teachers need master's degrees. Getting a
master's degree is a necessity, but if it is gained too early, there may be concerns that the
candidate lacks the real-world experience to go with it. In fact, very few schools want to hire
novices with little or no classroom experience and even if they are accepted, they are usually ill-
paid. One wise solution to the issue is for future postgraduates to start working as teachers
before going on to gain their master's degree.
(extracted from the first term exam 2016-2107)
Question 41. The word they in paragraph 3 refers to ____________.
A. postgraduates B. novices C. schools D. teachers
Example 2:
You can usually tell when your friends are happy or angry by the looks on their faces or by their
actions. This is useful because reading their emotional expressions helps you to know how to
respond to them. Emotions have evolved to help us respond to important situations and to
convey our intentions to others. But does raising the eyebrows and rounding the mouth say the
same thing in Minneapolis as they does in Madagascar? Much research on emotional
expressions has centered on such questions.
(extracted from the first term exam 2016-2017)
Question 40: The word they in paragraph 1 refers to ______
A. appropriate responses in particular situations
B. raising eyebrows and rounding the mouth
C. our intentions to others
D. research on emotional expressions

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