I. Read the passage and answer these following questions.
One identifying characteristic of minerals is their relative hardness, which can be determined by scratching one mineral with another. In this type of test, a harder mineral can scratch a softer one, but a softer mineral is unable to scratch the harder one. The Mohs’ hardness scale is used to rank minerals according to hardness. Ten minerals are listed in this scale, ranging from talc with a hardness of 1 to diamond with a hardness of 10. On this scale, quartz (number 7) is harder than feldspar (number 6) and is therefore able to scratch it; however, feldspar is unable to make a mark on quartz.
1. Which of the following best states the subject of this passage?
2. The main idea of this passage is that _____________________.
II. Read the pasage and answer these following questions.
Crescent-shaped Lake Baikal, in Siberia, is only the ninth largest lake in area at 385 miles (620 km) in length and 46 miles (74 km) in width, yet it is easily the largest body of fresh water in the world. It holds one-fifth of the world’s total fresh water, which is more than the total of all the water in the five Great Lakes; it holds so much fresh water in spite of its less-than-impressive area because it is by far the world’s deepest lake. The average depth of the lake is 1,312 feet (400 meters) below sea level, and the Olkhon Crevice, the lowest known point, is more than 5,250 feet (1,600 meters) deep.
Lake Baikal, which today is located near the center of the Asian peninsula, is most likely the world’s oldest lake. It began forming 25 million years ago as Asia started splitting apart in a series of great faults. The Baikal Valley dropped away, eventually filling with water and creating the deepest of the world’s lakes.
1. What is stated in paragraph 1 about the shape of Lake Baikal?
2. It is indicated in paragraph 1 that the area of Lake Baikal ______________.
3. According to paragraph 1, Lake Baikal ____________________.
4. According to paragraph 1, the Olkhon Crevice is ___________________.
5. It is mentioned in paragraph 2 that Lake Baikal _________________________.
III. Read the passage and answer these following questions.
The oxidation of exhaust gases is one of the primary sources of the world’s pollution. The brown haze that is poised over some of the world’s largest cities is properly called photochemical smog; it results from Chemical reactions that take place in the air, using the energy of sunlight. The production of smog begins when gases are created in the cylinders of vehicle engines. It is there that oxygen and nitrogen gas combine as the fuel burns to form nitric oxide (NO), a colorless gas. The nitric oxide is forced out into the air through the vehicle tailpipe along with other gases.
When the gas reaches the air, it comes into contact with available oxygen from the atmosphere and combines with the oxygen to produce nitrogen dioxide (N02), which is a gas with a brownish hue. This nitrogen dioxide plays a role in the formation of acid rain in wetter or more humid climates and tends to decompose back into nitric oxide as it releases an oxygen atom from each molecule; the released oxygen atoms quickly combine with oxygen (02) molecules to form ozone (03). The brownish colored nitrogen dioxide is partially responsible for the brown color in smoggy air; the ozone is the toxic substance that causes irritation to eyes.
1. The word “poised” in paragraph 1 is closest in meaning to ___________.
2. The phrase “take place” in paragraph 1 is closest in meaning to ____________
3. The word “forced” in paragraph 1 is closest in meaning to ___________.
4. The word “hue‟ in paragraph 2 could best be replaced by __________.
5. The phrase “plays a role in” in paragraph 2 is closest in meaning to __________
IV. Read the passage and answer these following questions.
The Cambrian Explosion
Many of the major phyla of animals arose during the Cambrian period, in what is called the Cambrian Explosion. Prior to the Cambrian period, simple one-celled organisms had slowly evolved into primitive multicellular creatures. Then, in a relatively rapid explosion during the period from 540 million years ago to 500 million years ago, there was a period of astonishing diversification in which quickly developing organisms became widely distributed and formed complex communities.
One theoretical explanation for the rapid diversification that occurred during the Cambrian period is known as the theory of polar wander. According to this theory, the rapid diversification occurred because of an unusually rapid reorganization of the Earth’s crust during the Cambrian period. This rapid change in the Earth’s crust initiated evolutionary change in asmuch as change in the environment serves to trigger evolutionary change.
1. It can be inferred from paragraph 1 that ___________________.
2. It can be determined from paragraph 1 that the Cambrian Explosion most likely lasted _________.
3. It is implied in paragraph 2 that ________________________.
4. It can be inferred from paragraph 2 that one basis of the theory of polar wander is that _________.