Read the passage and answer these following questions.
The first black literature in America was not written but was preserved in an oral tradition, in a rich body of folklore, songs and stories, many from African origins. There are humorous tales, Biblical stories, animal stories, and stories of natural phenomena, of good and bad people, and of the wise and foolish. Many reflect how African-Americans viewed themselves and their lives. The lyrics of blues, spirituals, and work songs speak of suffering and hope, joy and pain, loved ones, and religious faith, and are an integral part of the early literature of black people in America.
The earliest existing written black literature was Lucy Terry’s poem “Bars Fight,” written in 1746. Other 18th-century black poets include Jupiter Hammon and George Moses Horton. The first African- American to publish a book in America was Phillis Wheatley. Black poetry also flourished in the 19th century, during which the writings of almost 40 poets were printed, the most notable of whom was Paul Laurence Dunbar, the first black American to achieve national acclaim for his work. Dunbar published eight volumes of poetry and eight novels and collections of stories.
More than three dozen novels were written by blacks between 1853 and 1899, but autobiography dominated African-American literature in the 19th century, as it had in the 18th. In the 20th century, however, fiction has presided, with Charles w. Chestnutt, America’s first black man of letters, successfully bridging the two centuries. He began publishing short fiction in the mid-1880s, wrote two books that appeared in 1899, and had three books published between 1900 and 1905. He was a pioneer of the “new literature” of the early 1900s, which aimed to persuade readers of the worth and equality of African-Americans.