IELTS Academic Reading test 6

Kiểm tra trắc nghiệm IELTS Reading

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Kiểm tra trắc nghiệm IELTS Reading Online

PHẦN THI ĐỌC IELTS: Phần thi này có 3 đoạn văn và  27 câu hỏi. Tiêu đề sẽ cung cấp thông tin về chủ đề chính của đoạn văn. Nếu bạn không hiểu ý nghĩa của tiêu đề hay 1 vài từ trong tiêu đề, hãy cố tìm ra ý nghĩa của nó trong quá trình đọc đoạn văn nhé. Những từ in đậm rất quan trọng, giúp chúng ta phỏng đoán các thông tin trong bài. Sau khi hoàn thành, bạn hãy chọn "Kiểm tra kết quả" để xem điểm số và so sánh kết quả.

IELTS Academic Reading Test 7

Read the passage.

Unmasking skin

A

If you took off your skin and laid it flat, it would cover an area of about twenty-one square feet, making it by far the body's largest organ. Draped in place over our bodies, skin forms the barrier between what's inside us and what's outside. It protects us from a multitude of external forces. It serves as an avenue to our most intimate physical and psychological selves.

B
This impervious yet permeable barrier, less than a millimetre thick in places, is composed of three layers. The outermost layer is the bloodless epidermis. The dermis includes collagen, elastin, and nerve endings. The innermost layer, subcutaneous fat, contains tissue that acts as an energy source, cushion and insulator for the body.

C
From these familiar characteristics of skin emerge the profound mysteries of touch, arguably our most essential source of sensory stimulation. We can live without seeing or hearing – in fact, without any of our other senses. But babies born without effective nerve connections between skin and brain can fail to thrive and may even die.

D
Laboratory experiments decades ago, now considered unethical and inhumane, kept baby monkeys from being touched by their mothers. It made no difference that the babies could see, hear and smell their mothers; without touching, the babies became apathetic, and failed to progress.

E
For humans, insufficient touching in early years can have lifelong results. "In touching cultures, adult aggression is low, whereas in cultures where touch is limited, adult aggression is high," writes Tiffany Field, director of the Touch Research Institutes at the University of Miami School of Medicine. Studies of a variety of cultures show a correspondence between high rates of physical affection in childhood and low rates of adult physical violence.

F
While the effects of touching are easy to understand, the mechanics of it are less so. "Your skin has millions of nerve cells of various shapes at different depths," explains Stanley Bolanowski, a neuroscientist and associate director of the Institute for Sensory Research at Syracuse University. "When the nerve cells are stimulated, physical energy is transformed into energy used by the nervous system and passed from the skin to the spinal cord and brain. It's called transduction, and no one knows exactly how it takes place." Suffice it to say that the process involves the intricate, splitsecond operation of a complex system of signals between neurons in the skin and brain.

G
This is starting to sound very confusing until Bolanowski says: "In simple terms people perceive three basic things via skin: pressure, temperature, and pain." And then I'm sure he's wrong. "When I get wet, my skin feels wet," I protest. "Close your eyes and lean back," says Bolanowski.

H
Something cold and wet is on my forehead – so wet, in fact, that I wait for water to start dripping down my cheeks. "Open your eyes." Bolanowski says, showing me that the sensation comes from a chilled, but dry, metal cylinder. The combination of pressure and cold, he explains, is what makes my skin perceive wetness. He gives me a surgical glove to put on and has me put a finger in a glass of cold water. My finger feels wet, even though I have visual proof that it's not touching water. My skin, which seemed so reliable, has been deceiving me my entire life. When I shower or wash my hands, I now realize, my skin feels pressure and temperature. It's my brain that says I feel wet.

I
Perceptions of pressure, temperature and pain manifest themselves in many different ways. Gentle stimulation of pressure receptors can result in ticklishness; gentle stimulation of pain receptors, in itching. Both sensations arise from a neurological transmission, not from something that physically exists. Skin, I'm realizing, is under constant assault, both from within the body and from forces outside. Repairs occur with varying success.

J
Take the spot where I nicked myself with a knife while slicing fruit. I have a crusty scab surrounded by pink tissue about a quarter inch long on my right palm. Under the scab, epidermal cells are migrating into the wound to close it up. When the process is complete, the scab will fall off to reveal new epidermis. It's only been a few days, but my little self-repair is almost complete. Likewise, we recover quickly from slight burns. If you ever happen to touch a hot burner, just put your finger in cold water. The chances are you will have no blister, little pain and no scar. Severe burns, though, are a different matter.

Read the passage
Questions 1-4
The passage has 10 paragraphs A–J.

Which paragraph contains the following information?

Answer the questions below by writing the correct letters, A-J, in boxes 1-4 on your answer sheet.
1) the features of human skin, on and below the surface
2) advice on how you can avoid damage to the skin
3) an experiment in which the writer can see what is happening
4) cruel research methods used in the past

Questions 5 and 6

Choose the correct letter, ABC or D.

5) How does a lack of affectionate touching affect children?

6) After the ‘wetness’ experiments, the writer says that

Questions 7–11

Complete each sentence with the correct ending A–I from the box below.

Write the correct letter A–I in boxes 7–11 on your answer sheet.

A  because it is both cold and painful.
В  because the outer layer of the skin can mend itself.
С  because it can be extremely thin.
D  because there is light pressure on the skin.
E  because we do not need the others to survive.
F  because there is a good blood supply to the skin.
G  because of a small amount of pain.
H  because there is a low temperature and pressure.
I  because it is hurting a lot.
J  because all humans are capable of experiencing it.
7) Touch is unique among the five senses
8) A substance may feel wet
9) Something may tickle
10) The skin may itch
11) A small cut heals up quickly
Questions 12–14

Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage 1?

In boxes 12-14 on your answer sheet, write

TRUE if the statement is true according to the passage
FALSE if the statement is false according to the passage
NOT GIVEN if the information is not given in the passage

12) Even scientists have difficulty understanding how our sense of touch works.
13) The skin is more sensitive to pressure than to temperature or pain.
14) The human skin is always good at repairing itself.
Advice for Employees

Safe computer use

Most people suffer no ill-effects from using VDUs (Visual Display Units) as they don’t give out harmful levels of radiation and rarely cause any kind of skin complaint. If you do suffer ill-effects, it may be because of the way you’re using the computer and this can be avoided by well-designed workstations. When working at a VDU, make sure you keep a good posture and that your eyes are level with the screen.

Under health and safety regulations your employer should look at VDU workstations, and reduce any risks by supplying any equipment considered necessary (e.g. a wrist rest). They should also provide health and safety training. This also applies if you’re working at home as an employee and using a VDU for a long period of time. There is no legal limit to how long you should work at a VDU, but under health and safety regulations you have the right to breaks from work using a VDU. This doesn’t have to be a rest break, just a different type of work. Guidance from the Health and Safety Executive (HSE) suggests it’s better to take frequent short breaks but if your job means spending long periods at a VDU, for example as in the case of data input, then longer breaks from your workstation should be introduced.

If you’re disabled, your employer's duty to make reasonable adjustments for you may mean that they will provide you with special computer equipment. You can also get advice and maybe help with paying for equipment from the local job centre. Studies haven’t shown a link between VDU use and damage to eyesight, but if you feel that using a VDU screen is making your eyes tired, tell your employee safety representative. You have the right to a free eyesight test if you use a VDU a lot during work hours. If you’re prescribed glasses your company must pay for them, provided they’re required in your job.

If you have any health problems you think may be caused by your VDU, contact your line manager. He/she has a duty to consult you on health and safety issues that affect you, and should welcome early reporting of any issue.

Questions 1-6

Complete the sentences below.

Choose NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS from the text for each answer.

Write your answers in boxes 1-6.

1) It is unusual to get a .................... as a result of using computers.
2) Employers may be required to provide you with items such as a .................... to use while at work.
3) If your job involves tasks such as ...................., the advice from the HSE may not apply.
4) Financial assistance in the case of special requirements may be available from the .....................
5) The company is obliged to cover the cost of .................... if you need them while working.
6) Any concerns about the effect of using a VDU on your general well-being should be reported to.....................
Careers with IELTS Reading

Flight Attendants – Recruitment and Training Process

Recruitment

The position of Flight Attendant is one of prestige and immense responsibility. Recruitment is conducted according to operational demands and there can be periods of up to 12 months where no new intake is required. However, applications are always welcomed.

After you submit your initial application online, the Kiwi Air HR Services Team review the details you have provided. Candidates whose details closely match the requirements of the position are then contacted via email advising that their application has progressed to the next stage of the recruitment process. Potential candidates are then asked to attend a Walk-In Day. This could occur several weeks or months after the original application has been submitted depending on current needs.

The Walk-In Day consists of a brief presentation about the role and a short interview. Candidates who are successful on the Walk-In Day are notified within 10 days and invited to attend an Assessment Centre. Please note that candidates are required to pass a swimming test before attending the Assessment Centre. At the Assessment Centre, candidates attend an interview as well as participating in a number of assessments. Verbal references are then requested, and candidates attend a medical check.

At times, there may not be a need to recruit for Flight Attendant positions. However, the company continuously maintains a ‘recruitment pool’ of those who have completed the Assessment Centre stage. These candidates are contacted when a need for Flight Attendants is established, and attend a full interview before a decision is made on whether to extend an offer of employment.

Due to the volume of applications received, Kiwi Air is not able to offer verbal feedback to candidates at any stage of the recruitment process. Unsuccessful candidates may reapply at any time after 12 months from the date at which their applications are declined.

Training

Upon being offered a role as a trainee Flight Attendant, a 5-week training course is undertaken at our Inflight Services Training Centre in Auckland. This covers emergency procedures, customer care and service delivery, and equipment knowledge. To successfully complete the course, high standards must be attained and maintained in all subjects.

Questions 7-13
Complete the table below.

Choose NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS from the text for each answer.

Write your answers in boxes 7-13 on your answer sheet.
7. Candidates go online to complete their .....................
8. Suitable candidates are then invited to come to a .....................
9. After having satisfactorily completed a ...................., successful candidates will then go to an Assessment Centre.
10. Kiwi Air then asks for .................... and candidates are required to undergo a medical check.
11. If there is no immediate need for flight attendants, successful candidates are put into a .....................
12. When the need arises, these candidates will then be given a ...................., after which they may be offered a job.
13. On starting the job, a 5-week training programme is given which includes how to look after passengers and what to do in an .....................
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