Question 1. She helped us a lot with our project. We couldn't continue without her.

A. If her contribution wouldn't come, we couldn't continue with the project.

B. If she hadn't contributed positively, we couldn't have continued with the project.

C. Unless we had her contribution, we could continue with the project.

D. Because of her contribution, we could have continued with the project.

Question 2. We paid for the meal. We wanted to say sorry for what we had done.

A. We paid for the meal in order to say sorry for what we had done.

B. We paid for the meal although we wanted to say sorry for what we had done.

C. The meal we paid for is what we want to say sorry for what we had done.

D. In order to pay for the meal, we wanted to say sorry for what we had done.

Read the following passage and mark the letter A, B, C or D on your answer sheet to indicate the correct answer to each of the questions.

Biological diversity has become widely recognized as a critical conservation issue only in the past two decades. The rapid destruction of the tropical rain forests, which are the ecosystems with the highest known species diversity on Earth, has awakened people to the importance and fragility of biological diversity. The high rate of species extinctions in these environments is jolting, but it is important to recognize the significance of biological diversity in all ecosystems. As the human population continues to expand, it will negatively affect one after another of Earth's ecosystems. In terrestrial ecosystems and in fringe marine ecosystems (such as wetlands), the most common problem is habitat destruction. In most situations, the result is irreversible. Now humans are beginning to destroy marine ecosystems through other types of activities, such as disposal and runoff of poisonous waste; in less than two centuries, by significantly reducing the variety of species on Earth, they have irrevocably redirected the course of evolution.

Certainly, there have been periods in Earth's history when mass extinctions have occurred. The extinction of the dinosaurs was caused by some physical event, either climatic or cosmic. There have also been less dramatic extinctions, as when natural competition between species reached an extreme conclusion. Only 0.01 percent of the species that have lived on Earth have survived to the present, and it was largely chance that determined which species survived and which died out.

However, nothing has ever equaled the magnitude and speed with which the human species is altering the physical and chemical world and demolishing the environment. In fact, there is wide agreement that it is the rate of change humans are inflicting, even more than the changes themselves, that will lead to biological devastation. Life on Earth has continually been in flux as slow physical and chemical changes have occurred on Earth, but life needs time to adapt-time for migration and genetic adaptation within existing species and time for the proliferation of new genetic material and new species that may be able to survive in new environments.

Question 3. The author mentions the extinction of the dinosaurs in the 2nd paragraph to emphasize that _____.

A. not all mass extinctions have been caused by human activity

B. the cause of the dinosaurs' extinction is unknown

C. actions by humans could not stop the irreversible process of a species' extinction

D. Earth's climate has changed significantly since the dinosaurs' extinction

Question 4. The author mentions all of the following as examples of the effect of humans on the world's ecosystem EXCEPT ______.

A. damage to marine ecosystems

B. the introduction of new varieties of plant species

C. destruction of the tropical rain forests

D. habitat destruction in wetlands

Question 5. The word "jolting" is closest in meaning to ______.

A. illuminating

B. shocking

C. unknown

D. predicted

Question 6. What does the passage mainly discuss?

A. The cause of the extinction of the dinosaurs.

B. The time required for species to adapt to new environments.

C. The impact of human activities on Earth's ecosystems.

D. The variety of species found in tropical rain forests.

Question 7. With which of the following statements would the author be most likely to agree?

A. Humans should be more conscious of the influence they have on ecosystems.

B. The extinction of a few species is an acceptable consequence of human progress.

C. Technology will provide solutions to problems caused by the destruction of ecosystems.

D. Human influence on ecosystems should not be a factor in determining public policy.

Question 8. According to the passage, natural evolutionary change is different from changes caused by humans in that changes caused by humans ______.

A. are less devastating to most species

B. are occurring at a much faster rate

C. affect fewer ecosystems

D. are reversible

Question 9. The word "critical" is closest in meaning to ______.

A. complicated

B. interesting

C. negative

D. essential

Mark the letter A, B, C, or D on your answer sheet to indicate the word whose underlined part differs from the other three in pronunciation in each of the following questions.

Question 10.

A. nuclear

B. treasure

C. weather

D. threaten

Question 11.

A. steps

B. defends

C. kicks

D. advocates

Mark the letter A, B, C, or D on your answer sheet to indicate the correct answer to each of the following questions.

Question 12. I would like to extend my gratitude to all the staff for their ______ support, without which our company couldn't have overcome the crisis.

A. unfriendly

B. unfailing

C. unsuitable

D. unfeeling

Question 13. Cars have become much more complicated. ______, mechanics need more training than in the past.

A. Therefore

B. Besides

C. But

D. However

Question 14. By the end of 2021, I ______ as an accountant in this company for 15 years.

A. have worked

B. will have worked

C. had worked

D. will work

Question 15. A large number of people in the world are now ______ work because of the serious impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic.

A. in on

B. at

C. out of

D. with

Question 16. Those problems will be worse if the government does not ______ any measures to reduce the negative effects of urbanisation.

A. pay

B. make

C. take

D. do

Question 17. Human beings are ______ greatest threat to the survival of endangered species.

A. the

B. a

C. Ø (no article)

D. an

Question 18. Not until all their demands had been ______ did the workers decide to go on strike for more welfare.

A. turned on

B. turned up

C. turned down

D. turned off

Question 19. She got the job ______ she actually had very little experience.

A. despite

B. although

C. because

D. because of

Question 20. One ______ method for keeping our mind active is doing crossword puzzles.

A. popular

B. popularize

C. popularly

D. popularity