Chuyên đề đọc hiểu Tiếng Anh - Tài liệu ôn thi THPT Quốc Gia

Ôn thi THPT Quốc Gia năm 2021: Bài tập đọc hiểu Tiếng Anh

Chuyên đề đọc hiểu Tiếng Anh - Tài liệu ôn thi THPT Quốc Gia nằm trong bộ đề thi THPT Quốc Gia môn Tiếng Anh do VnDoc.com biên soạn và đăng tải. Tài liệu Bài tập đọc hiểu tiếng Anh gồm bài tập nâng cao có đáp án, bám sát chương trình và đề thi giúp học sinh lớp 12 nắm chắc kiến thức phần lý thuyết trước đó hiệu quả.

Mời các bạn tham gia nhóm Tài liệu học tập lớp 12 để tham khảo nhiều tài liệu hay: Nhóm Tài liệu học tập lớp 12

Chuyên đề đọc hiểu Tiếng Anh - Tài liệu ôn thi THPT Quốc Gia

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II/ Bài tập luyện tập

Exercise 1

Not so long ago almost any student who successfully completed a university degree or diploma course could find a good career quite easily. Companies toured the academic institutions, competing with each other to recruit graduates. However, those days are gone, even in Hong Kong, and nowadays graduates often face strong competition in the search for jobs.

Most careers organizations highlight three stages for graduates to follow in the process of securing a suitable career: recognizing abilities, matching these to available vacancies and presenting them well to prospective employers.

Job seekers have to make a careful assessment of their own abilities. One area of assessment should be of their academic qualifications, which would include special skills within their subject area. Graduates should also consider their own personal values and attitudes, or the relative importance to themselves of such matters as money, security, leadership and caring for others. An honest assessment of personal interests and abilities such as creative or scientific skills, or skills acquired from work experience, should also be given careful thought.

The second stage is to study the opportunities available for employment and to think about how the general employment situation is likely to develop in the future. To do this, graduates can study job vacancies and information in newspapers or they can visit a careers office, write to possible employers for information or contact friends or relatives who may already be involved in a particular profession. After studying all the various options, they should be in a position to make informed comparisons between various careers.

Good personal presentation is essential in the search for a good career. Job application forms and letters should, of course, be filled in carefully and correctly, without grammar or spelling errors. Where additional information is asked for, job seekers should describe their abilities and work experience in more depth, with examples if possible. They should try to balance their own abilities with the employer's needs, explain why they are interested in a career with the particular company and try to show that they already know something about the company and its activities.

When graduates are asked to attend for interview, they should prepare properly by finding out all they can about the prospective employer. Dressing suitably and arriving for the interview on time are also obviously important. Interviewees should try to give positive and helpful answers and should not be afraid to ask questions about anything they are unsure about. This is much better than pretending to understand a question and giving an unsuitable answer.

There will always be good career opportunities for people with ability, skills and determination; the secret to securing a good job is to be one of them.

Question 1: In paragraph 1, 'those days are gone, even in Hong Kong', suggests that .

A. in the past, finding a good career was easier in Hong Kong than elsewhere

B. it used to be harder to find a good job in Hong Kong than in other countries

C. nowadays, everyone in Hong Kong has an equal chance of finding a good career

D. even in Hong Kong companies tour the universities trying to recruit graduates

Question 2: The word “prospective” in paragraph 2 is closest in meaning to _______

A. future

B. generous

C. reasonable

D. Ambitious

Question 3: According to paragraph 4, graduates should _______.

A. ask friends or relatives to secure them a good job

B. find out as much as possible and inform employers of the comparisons they want

C. get information about a number of careers before making comparisons

D. find a good position and then compare it with other careers

Question 4: Which of following does “This” in paragraph 6 refer to?

A. Not being afraid to be unsure

B. Giving positive and helpful answers to the questions

C. Being prepared to ask questions about things they don’t understand

D. Being unsure about the questions

Question 5: According to the passage, which of the following is NOT true?

A. Businesses used to visit the universities in Hong Kong to recruit graduates.

B. Until recently it was quite easy for graduates to get good jobs in Hong Kong.

C. Job seekers should consider as many as possible of the factors involved.

D. Graduates sometimes have to take part in competitions to secure a good career.

Exercise 2

According to airline industry statistics, almost 90 percent of airline accidents are survivable or partially survivable. But passengers can increase their chances of survival by learning and following certain tips. Experts say that you should read and listen to safety instruction before take off and ask questions if you have uncertainties. You should fasten your seat belt low on your hips and as tightly as possible. Of course, you should also know how the release mechanism of your belt operates. During takeoffs and landings, you are advised to keep your feet flat on the floor. Before take off, you should locate the nearest exit and an alternative exit and count the rows of seats between you and the exits so that you can find them in the dark if necessary.

In the event that you are forewarned of a possible accident, you should put your hands on your ankles and keep your head down until the planes comes to a complete stop. If smoke is present in the cabin, you should keep your head low and cover your face with napkins, towels, or clothing. If possible, wet these for added protection against smoke inhalation. To (evacuate) as quickly as possible, follow crew commands and do not take personal belongings with you. Do not jump on escape slides before they are fully (inflated), and when you jump, do so with your arms and legs extended in front of you. When you get to the ground, you should move away from the plane as quickly as possible, and smoke near the wreckage.

Question 1: What is the main topic of the passage?

A. Procedures for evacuation aircraft.

B. Guidelines for increasing aircraft passenger survival.

C. Airline industry accident statistics.

D. Safety instructions in air travel.

Question 2: The word “them” in the last line of the first paragraph refers to _____.

A. rows

B. feet

C. seats

D. exists

Question 3: It can be inferred from the passage that people are more likely to survive fires in aircrafts if they _______.

A. don’t smoke in or near a plane

B. read airline safety statistics

C. wear a safety belt

D. keep their heads low

Question 4: According to the passage, which exits should an airline passenger locate before take-off ?

A. The ones with counted rows of seats between them.

B. The nearest one.

C. The two closest to the passenger’s seat

D. The ones that can be found in the dark

Question 5: Airline passengers are advised to do all of the following EXCEPT ___________

A. ask questions about safety

B. locate the nearest exit

C. fasten their seat belts before take-off

D. carry personal belongings in an emergency

Exercise 3

Dissociative identity disorder is a psychological condition in which a person's identity dissociates, or fragments, thereby creating distinct independent identities within one individual. Each separate personality can be distinct from the other personalities in a number of ways, including: posture, manner of moving, tone and pitch of voice, gestures, facial expressions, and use of language. A person suffering from dissociative identity disorder may have a large number of independent personalities or perhaps only two or three.

Two stories of actual women suffering from dissociative identity disorder have been extensively recounted in books and films that are familiar to the public. One of them is the story of a woman with 22 seprarate personalities known as Eve. In the 1950s, a book by Corbett Thiapen and a motion picture starring Joanne Woodward, each of which was titled Three Faces of Eve, presented her story; the title referred to 3 faces. when the woman known as Eve actually experienced 22 different personalities, because only 3 of the personalities could exist at one time. Two decades later, Carolyn Sizemore, Eve's 22nd personality, wrote about her experiences in a book entitled I'm Eve. The second well-known story of a woman suffering from dissociative personality disorder is the story of Sybil, a woman whose 16 distinct personalities emerged over a period of 40 years. A book describing Sybil's experiences was written by Flora Rrela Schreiber MKi was published in 1973; a motion picture based on the book and starring Sally Field followed.

Question 1: It is NOT stated in paragraph 1 that someone suffering from dissociative identity disorder has ________ .

A. a psychological condition

B. a fragmented identity

C. a number of independent identities

D. some violent and some nonviolent identities

Question 2: The word recounted in paragraph 2 is closest in meaning to ________ .

A. counted again

B. illustrated

C. told about

D. explained clearly

Question 3: The word them in paragraph 2 refers to _________.

A. the two women suffering from dissociative identity disorder.

B. the two stories of actual women suffering from dissociative identity disorder.

C. the book and film about the women.

D. the personalities that the two women have.

Question 4: It is NOT indicated in paragraph 2 that the book describing Sybil's experiences _____ .

A. took 40 years to write

B. was written by Flora Rheta Schreiber

C. appeared in the 1970s

D. was made into a movie

Question 5: Which of the following is true about Eve and Sybil?

A. One of them wrote a book about their own experiences during one their many personalities.

B. I'm Eve is a book written about Sybil’s story.

C. All the books about Eve’s and Sybil’s stories were made into films.

D. They were the only two women who suffered from dissociative identity disorder.

Exercise 4

Until recently, growth hormone could only be obtained from the pituitary glands of dead people. This substance is used to treat children who did not produce enough of their own growth hormone and who would, therefore, grow up as dwarfs. The natural product was taken off the market after it was linked to a brain disease which attacked some of the children undergoing treatment with it. But now, a new synthetic growth hormone has been developed which, it is claimed, has no dangerous side effects. The new drug is called "Somatrem" and can be produced in unlimited quantities.

For children who are deficient in their own growth hormone, Somatrem is an important medical advance. The problem is that the drug may be abused by people who are not medically in need of its benefits. For example, athletes may take the drug in the belief that it will improve their physique and physical performance. Parents may want to obtain the drug for their children who are only marginally under average height. For such reasons, experts are recommending that registers be kept of Somatrem recipients. The implications of the use of Somatrem must be thoroughly understood before widespread distribution of the drug is undertaken.

Question 1: What is this passage mainly about?

A. The side effects of growth drugs

B. A medical breakthrough in growth hormone

C. The abuse of growth hormone

D. The problems of growth hormone-deficient children

Question 2: According to the passage natural growth hormone is not marketed now because ______.

A. It may have caused a brain disease

B. People were killed by it

C. It failed to make people grow

D. Not enough pituitary glands were available

Question 3: The word “people” refers to _______.

A. Children deficient in growth hormone

B. Experts in the medical field

C. Possible drug abuses

D. Dead people

Question 4: One might expect that Somatrem will be _________.

A. in short supply

B. forgotten soon

C. in demand

D. taken off the market

Question 5: The word “recipients” is closet in meaning to ________.

A. Abuses

B. Receives

C. Salepersons

D. Test subjects

Exercise 5

Before the grass has thickened on the roadside verges and leaves have started growing on the trees is a perfect time to look around and see just how dirty Britain has become. The pavements are stained with chewing gum that has been spat out and the gutters are full of discarded fast food cartons. Years ago I remember travelling abroad and being saddened by the plastic bags, discarded bottles and soiled nappies at the edge of every road. Nowadays, Britain seems to look at least as bad. What has gone wrong?

The problem is that the rubbish created by our increasingly mobile lives lasts a lot longer than before. If it is not cleared up and properly thrown away, it stays in the undergrowth for years; a semi-permanent reminder of what a tatty little country we have now.

Firstly, it is estimated that 10 billion plastic bags have been given to shoppers. These will take anything from 100 to 1,000 years to rot. However, it is not as if there is no solution to this. A few years ago, the Irish government introduced a tax on non-recyclable carrier bags and in three months reduced their use by 90%. When he was a minister, Michael Meacher attempted to introduce a similar arrangement in Britain. The plastics industry protested, of course. However, they need not have bothered; the idea was killed before it could draw breath, leaving supermarkets free to give away plastic bags.

What is clearly necessary right now is some sort of combined initiative, both individual and collective, before it is too late. The alternative is to continue sliding downhill until we have a country that looks like a vast municipal rubbish tip. We may well be at the tipping point. Yet we know that people respond to their environment. If things around them are clean and tidy, people behave cleanly and tidily. If they are surrounded by squalor, they behave squalidly. Now, much of Britain looks pretty squalid. What will it look like in five years?

Question 1: The writer says that it is a good time to see Britain before the trees have leaves because ___________.

A. Britain looks perfect

B. you can see Britain at its dirtiest

C. the grass has thickened on the verges

D. you can see how dirty Britain is now

Question 2: According to the writer, things used to be ____________.

A. the same aboard

B. worse aboard

C. better aboard

D. worse, but now things are better aboard

Question 3: For the writer, the problem is that ____________.

A. rubbish last longer than it used to

B. rubbish is not cleared up

C. our society is increasingly mobile

D. Britain is a tatty country

Question 4: Michael Mencher ____________.

A. followed the Irish example with a tax on plastic bags

B. made no attempt to follow the Irish example with a tax on plastic bags

C. tried to follow the Irish example with a tax on plastic bags

D. had problems with the plastics industry who weren’t bothered about the tax

Question 5: The writer thinks _____________.

A. we need to work together to solve the problem

B. it is too late to do anything

C. we are at the tipping point

D. there is no alternative

Question 6: The writer thinks that ___________.

A. People are squalid

B. People are clean and tidy

C. People are like a vast municipal rubbish tip

D. People behave according to what they see around them

Exercise 6

People who travel frequently on business or for pleasure often suffer some form of health problem, yet over half of these problems can easily be prevented. The most common ailment, a headache, can be avoided by taking along an ample supply of aspirin or other pain reliever. Another common affliction is motion sickness caused by the constant movement of a vehicle. Ginger capsules, sold in most health-food stores, have been found effective as a remedy. Other familiar problems include sunburn, which can be prevented by using an effective sunscreen, and insect bites, which can be controlled with use of a repellent spray or ointment. For everyday cuts and scratches, a first-aid kit containing bandages and antiseptic cream is recommended.

Question 1: What is the best title for this passage?

A. Frequent Travelers

B. Avoiding Travel Ailments

C. Common Health Problems

D. Traveling for Business or Pleasure

Question 2: According to the passage, travelers are most commonly bothered by_________ .

A. . sunburn

B. motion sickness

C. insect bites

D. headache

Question 3: In line 4, the word ‘affliction’ can best be replaced by___________ .

A. result

B. experience

C. ailment

D. supply

Question 4: According to the passage, what can be used to remedy motion sickness?

A. A moving vehicle

B. Pain-killers

C. Ginger capsules

D. A first-aid kit

Question 5: Which of the following is NOT mentioned in the passage as a solution to health problem?

A. Sunscreen

B. Cold cream

C. Repellent spray

D. Aspirin

Exercise 7

Although Edgar Allan Poe is recognized as the originator of the mystery story genre and as a master of the short story, literary critics and the general public have debated the extent of both his genius and his madness since his death in 1849. Poe rose from destitute beginnings as an orphan to a childhood of relative comfort when a wealthy businessman took him in. As a young man, however, he descended through poverty and mental illness to an early death at the age of forty. In his short career, he produced dozens of poems, stories, and critical essays that reflect his brilliant creative intellect.

At twenty, Poe moved to Baltimore to live with his impoverished aunt and her daughter, where he eventually married his fourteen-year-old cousin, Virginia. Poe was obviously devoted to his young wife, and idealized images of her appear in many of his female characters. It is difficult to suppose, however, that they had a close relationship, since she was many years younger than he was and chronically ill with tuberculosis. Although Poe wrote for various newspapers and magazines during this time, making great strides in literary criticism and developing his short-story style, he achieved no monetary success.

His sensitive personality and a hereditary tendency to neurosis contributed to a tragic mental decline; however, this only seems to have reinforced the brilliant imagery and fascinating morbidity that he achieved in his tales. Many critics speculate that Poe also suffered from alcoholism and opium addiction. The fantastical quality of his work earned him a devoted posthumous following in France, but he was generally disparaged by his American contemporaries.

Question 1: According to the passage, some of the women in Poe’s works were inspired by his ____________.

A. daughter

B. mother

C. cousin

D. aunt

Question 2: What does the author claim strengthened the imagery of Poe’s tales?

A. His interest in literacy criticism

B. His mental deterioration

C. His alcoholism and opium addiction

D. His posthumous following in France

Question 3: According to the author, critics disagree about __________.

A. Poe’s relationship with his wife

B. Whether Poe was better as a critic than as a poet

C. The meaning of the fantastic images in Poe’s work

D. The degree of Poe’s talent

Question 4: When Poe wrote for magazines, he _________.

A. improved his writing technique

B. became ill with tuberculosis

C. became popular in France

D. was financially successful

Question 5: Just after Poe’s death, his reputation as a writer was better __________.

A. in the U.S than in France

B. than it is now

C. in France than in the U.S

D. amongst critics than the general public

Exercise 8

As viewed from space, Earth’s distinguishing characteristics are its blue waters and white clouds. Enveloped by an ocean of air consisting of 78% nitrogen and 21% oxygen, the planet is the only one in our solar system known to harbor life. Circling the Sun at an average distance of 149 million kilometers (93 million miles), Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the fifth largest planet in the solar system.

Our planet’s rapid spin and molten nickel-iron core give rise to an extensive magnetic field which, coupled the atmosphere, shields us from nearly all of the harmful radiation coming from the Sun and other stars. Earth’s atmosphere protects us from meteors as well, most of which burn up in the Earth’s atmosphere before they can strike the surface. The planet active geological processes have left no evidence of the ancient pelting it almost certainly received soon after it formed about 4.6 billion years ago. The Earth has a single natural satellite – the moon.

Question 1: The main idea of this passage is that ____________.

A. there are life-supporting characteristics on Earth

B. Earth is predominantly water

C. Earth has no common characteristics with other planets

D. Earth is the only planet with a moon

Question 2: The word “distinguishing” as it is used in the selection means ___________.

A. elevating in nature

B. devastating in nature

C. characteristics like all other planets

D. characteristics that set it apart from other planets

Questions 3: It’s probable that the next paragraph would discuss __________.

A. people on planets

B. the solar system as a whole

C. the Earth’s natural satellite - the Moon

D. rings around Saturn

Question 4: As used in this selection, the word “harbor” is synonymous with

A. include

B.surround

C. water

D. support

Question 5: This selection leads one to believe that Earth ____________.

A. never gets hit by meteors

B. was hit by meteors in some past time period

C. always gets hit by meteors

D. may be bombarded by meteors in the near future

Exercise 9

Traditionally in America, helping the poor was a matter for private charities or local governments. Arriving immigrants depended mainly on predecessors from their homeland to help them start a new life. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, several European nations instituted public-welfare programs. But such a movement was slow to take hold in the United States because the rapid pace of industrialization and the ready availability of farmland seemed to confirm the belief that anyone who was willing to work could find a job.

Most of the programs started during the Depression era were temporary relief measures, but one of the programs Social Security - has become an American institution. Paid for by deductions from the paychecks of working people, Social Security ensures that retired persons receive a modest monthly income and also provides unemployment insurance, disability insurance, and other assistance to those who need it. Social Security payments to retired persons can start at age 62, but many wait until age 65, when the payments are slightly higher. Recently, there has been concern that the Social Security fund may not have enough money to fulfill its obligations in the 21st century, when the population of elderly Americans is expected to increase dramatically. Policy makers have proposed various ways to make up the anticipated deficit, but a long-term solution is still being debated.

In the years since Roosevelt, other American presidents have established assistance programs. These include Medicaid and Medicare; food stamps, certificates that people can use to purchase food; and public housing which is built at federal expense and made available to persons on low incomes.

Needy Americans can also turn to sources other than the government for help. A broad spectrum of private charities and voluntary organizations is available. Volunteerism is on the rise in the United States, especially among retired persons. It is estimated that almost 50 percent of Americans over age 18 do volunteer work, and nearly 75 percent of U.S. households contribute money to charity.

Question 1: It took welfare program a long time to gain a foodhold in the US due to the rapid growth of _______.

A. industrialization

B. population

C. urbanization

D. modernization

Question 2: The Social Security program has become possible thanks to ___________ .

A. enforcement laws

B. deductions from wages

C. donations from companies

D. people's willingness to work

Question 3: Most of the public assistance programs ________ after the severe economic crisis.

A. were introduced into institutions

B. did not become institutionalized

C. functioned truthfully in institutions

D. did not work in institutions

Question 4: American on low incomes can seek help from __________ .

A. non-governmental agencies

B. governmental agencies

C. federal government

D. state government

Question 5: New immigrants to America could seek help for ________.

A. only charity organizations

B. volunteer organizations

C. the people who came earlier

D. the US government organization

Exercise 10

According to the best evidence gathered by space probes and astronomers, Mars is an inhospitable planet, more similar to Earth’s Moon than to Earth itself - a dry, stark, seemingly lifeless world. Mars’ air pressure is equal to Earth’s at an altitude of 100,000 feet. The air there is 95 percent carbon dioxide.

Mars has no ozone layer to screen out the sun’s lethal radiation. Daytime temperatures may reach above freezing, but because the planet is blanketed by the mere wisp of an atmosphere, the heat radiates back into space. Even at the equator, the temperature drops to -50C (-60F) at night. Today there is no liquid water, although valleys and channels on the surface show evidence of having been carved by running water. The polar ice caps are made of frozen water and carbon dioxide, and water may be frozen in the ground as permafrost.

Despite these difficult conditions, certain scientists believe that there is a possibility of transforming Mars into a more Earth-like planet. Nuclear reactors might be used to melt frozen gases and eventually build up the atmosphere. This in turn could create a “greenhouse effect” that would stop heat from radiating back into space.

Liquid water could be thawed to from a polar ocean. Once enough ice has melted, suitable plants could be introduced to build up the level of oxygen in the atmosphere so that, in time, the planet would support animal life from Earth and even permanent human colonies. “This was once thought to be so far in the future as to be irrelevant,” said Christopher McKay, a research scientist at NASA. “But now it’s starting to look practical. We could begin work in four or five decades.”The idea of “terraforming” Mars, as enthusiasts call it, has its roots in science fiction. But as researchers develop a more profound understanding of how Earth's ecology supports life, they have begun to see how it may be possible to create similar conditions on Mars. Don’t plan on homesteading on Mars any time soon, though. The process could take hundreds or even thousands of years to complete and the cost would be staggering.

Question 1: The word "there" in bold in paragraph 1 refers to __________.

A. the Earth's Moon

B. Mars

C. outer space

D. a point 100 miles above the Earth

Question 2: Which of the following does the author NOT list as a characteristic of the planet Mars that would make colonization difficult?

A. There is little liquid water.

B. The sun's rays are deadly.

C. Daytime temperatures are dangerously high.

D. Night time temperatures are extremely low.

Question 3: It can be inferred from the passage that the "greenhouse effect" mention in paragraph 3 is _________.

A. the direct result of nuclear reactions

B. the cause of low temperatures on Mars

C. caused by the introduction of green plants

D. a possible means of warming Mars

Question 4: The word "inhospitable" in bold in paragraph 1 is closest in meaning to _____.

A. generous

B. uninhabitable

C. hostile

D. green

Question 5: What is the main idea of the passage?

A. The possibility of changing the Martian environment

B. The challenge of interplanetary travel

C. The need to study the Martian ecology

D. The advantages of establishing colonies on Mars

III/ Đáp án bài tập luyện tập

Exercise 1

1. A

2. A

3. C

4. C

5. D

Exercise 2

1. B

2. D

3. D

4. C

5. D

Exercise 3

1. D

2. C

3. B

4. A

5. A

Exercise 4

1. B

2. A

3. C

4. C

5. B

Exercise 5

1. A

2. C

3. B

4. D

5. C

6. A

Exercise 6

1. C

2. B

3. D

4. C

5. A

Exercise 7

1. C

2. B

3. D

4. A

5. C

Exercise 8

1. A

2. D

3. C

4. D

5. B

Exercise 9

1. A

2. B

3. B

4. A

5. C

Exercise 10

1. B

2. C

3. D

4. B

5. A

Trên đây là toàn bộ nội dung bài tập và đáp án của Chuyên đề đọc hiểu Tiếng Anh - Tài liệu ôn thi THPT Quốc Gia. Mời bạn đọc tham khảo thêm nhiều tài liệu ôn thi THPT Quốc Gia hay như Đề thi thử THPT Quốc Gia môn Tiếng Anh năm 2021 - Đề 2 ... được cập nhật liên tục trên VnDoc.com.

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