Ngữ pháp Tiếng Anh lớp 11 Unit 10 Healthy Lifestyle And Longevity

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English 11 Grammar 10: Healthy Lifestyle And Longevity

1. Conditionals in reported speech

When we use reporting verbs in the present, verb tenses in conditional sentences remain unchanged in reported speech, but when the reporting verbs are written in the past:

- Conditional type 1: we apply all the necessary changes as usual: changes of verb tenses, pronouns, adverbs of time and place,

- Conditional type 0, 2 and 3 : we don’t change the verb tenses, but we follow the rules to change pronouns, adverbs of time and place.

2. Reported speech with to-infinitive and gerund

a. We use gerund in reported speech as follows.

1. S + V + gerund.

- Verbs: admit, deny, recommend, regret, allow, advise, suggest, ....

- Eg: Direct: She said to me, “I broke the vase of flowers”.

--> Indirect: She admitted breaking the vase of flowers.

2. S + V + preposition + gerund.

- Verbs: apologize (to sb) for…, dream of..., insist on…., object to....

Eg: Direct: She said to me, “I’m sorry. I broke the vase of flowers.”

--> Indirect: She apologized (to me) for breaking the vase of flowers.

3. S + V + O + preposition + gerund.

- Verbs: accuse…..…of, blame…..…for, congratulate….…..on, prevent…....from, thank…….for, warn ..…against, ect

- Eg: Direct: Mary told Peter, “It was your fault. You didn’t tell me the truth”.

--> Indirect: Mary blamed Peter for not telling her the truth.

b. We use to- infinitive in reported speech as follows.

1. S + V + to-infinitive.

- Verbs: promise, hope, claim, agree, demand, offer, prefer, refuse, threaten,ect.

- Eg: Customer: I don't think I'll buy this notebook after all.
The customer decided not to buy the notebook.

2. S + V + O + to-infinitive.

- Verbs: tell sb..., order sb..., invite sb..., ask sb, remind sb, advise sb, allow sb, ect

- Eg: Direct: Mary told Peter, “You should go to the doctor soon”.

--> Indirect: Mary advised Peter to go to the doctor soon.

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