Mệnh đề quan hệ - Relative clauses và bài tập có đáp án

53 96.397

English Grammar: Relative Clauses

Nối tiếp chuyên đề ôn tập Ngữ pháp Tiếng Anh cơ bản, VnDoc.com xin gửi đến bạn tài liệu Tiếng Anh chuyên đề Mệnh đề quan hệ dưới đây. Tài liệu Ngữ pháp Tiếng Anh gồm toàn bộ lý thuyết về định nghĩa mệnh đề quan hệ là gì, các dạng mệnh đề quan hệ và nhiều dạng bài tập trắc nghiệm Tiếng Anh khác nhau giúp bạn đọc củng cố kiến thức đã học hiệu quả. 

A. LÝ THUYẾT

1. Đnh nghĩa mệnh đề quan hệ

Mệnh đề (Clause) là một phần của câu, nó có thể bao gồm nhiều từ hay có cấu trúc của cả một câu. Mệnh đề quan hệ dùng để giải thích rõ hơn về danh từ đứng trước nó.

Xét ví dụ sau:

  • The woman who is wearing the T-shirt is my girlfriend.

Trong câu này phần được viết chữ nghiêng được gọi là một relative clause, nó đứng sau “the woman” và dùng để xác định danh từ đó. Nếu bỏ mệnh đề này ra chúng ta vẫn có một câu hoàn chỉnh:

  • The woman is my girlfriend.

2. Các dạng mệnh đề Quan hệ

A. Relative Pronouns - Đại từ quan hệ

Đại từ quan hệ Cách sử dụng Ví dụ
Who Làm chủ ngữ, đại diện ngôi người I told you about the woman who lives next door.
Which Làm chủ ngữ hoặc tân ngữ, đại diện ngôi đồ vật, động vật

Bổ sung cho cả câu đứng trước nó

Do you see the cat which is lying on the roof?

He couldn’t read which surprised me.

Whose Chỉ sở hữu cho người và vật Do you know the boy whose mother is a nurse?
Whom Đại diện cho tân ngữ chỉ người I was invited by the professor whom I met at the conference.
That Đại diện cho chủ ngữ chỉ người, vật, đặc biệt trong mệnh đề quan hệ xác định (who, which vẫn có thê sử dụng được) I don’t like the table that stands in the kitchen.

Mệnh đề quan hệ - Relative Clauses

Mệnh đề quan hệ (mệnh đề tính từ) bắt đầu bằng các đại từ quan hệ: who, whom, which, that, whose hay những trạng từ quan hệ: why, where, when. Mệnh đề quan hệ dùng để bổ nghĩa cho danh từ đứng trước nó.

I. Các đại từ quan hệ

1. WHO:

  • làm chủ từ trong mệnh đề quan hệ 
  • thay thế cho danh từ chỉ người

..... N (person) + WHO + V + O

2. WHOM:

  • làm túc từ cho động từ trong mệnh đề quan hệ
  • thay thế cho danh từ chỉ người

.....N (person) + WHOM + S + V

3. WHICH:

  • làm chủ từ hoặc túc từ trong mệnh đề quan hệ
  • thay thế cho danh từ chỉ vật

....N (thing) + WHICH + V + O

....N (thing) + WHICH + S + V

4. THAT:

  • có thể thay thế cho vị trí của who, whom, which trong mệnh đề quan hệ quan hệ xác định

* Các trường hợp thường dùng "that":

  • khi đi sau các hình thức so sánh nhất
  • khi đi sau các từ: only, the first, the last
  • khi danh từ đi trước bao gôm cả người và vật
  • khi đi sau các đại từ bất định, đại từ phủ định, đại từ chỉ số lượng: no one, nobody, nothing, anyone, anything, anybody, someone, something, somebody, all, some, any, little, none.

Ex: He was the most interesting person that I have ever met.

    It was the first time that I heard of it.

    These books are all that my sister left me. 0983672757

    She talked about the people and places that she had visited.

* Các trường hợp không dùng that:

  • trong mệnh đề quan hệ không xác định
  • sau giới từ

5. WHOSE:

  • dùng để chỉ sở hữu cho danh từ chỉ người hoặc vật, thường thay cho các từ: her, his, their, hoặc hình thức „s

.....N (person, thing) + WHOSE + N + V ....

II. Các trạng từ quan hệ

1. WHY: mở đầu cho mệnh đề quan hệ chỉ lý do, thường thay cho cụm for the reason, for that reason.

.....N (reason) + WHY + S + V ...

Ex: I don‟t know the reason. You didn‟t go to school for that reason.

→ I don‟t know the reason why you didn‟t go to school.

2. WHERE: thay thế từ chỉ nơi chốn, thường thay cho there

....N (place) + WHERE + S + V ....

(WHERE = ON / IN / AT + WHICH)

Ex: a/ The hotel wasn‟t very clean. We stayed t that hotel.

→ The hotel where we stayed wasn‟t very clean.
→ The hotel at which we stayed wasn‟t very clean.

3. WHEN: thay thế từ chỉ thời gian, thường thay cho từ then

....N (time) + WHEN + S + V ...

(WHEN = ON / IN / AT + WHICH)

Ex: Do you still remember the day? We first met on that day.

→ Do you still remember the day when we first met?
→ Do you still remember the day on which we first met?

I don‟t know the time. She will come back then. → I don‟t know the time when she will come back.

III. Các loại Mệnh đề quan hệ

Có hai loại mệnh đề quan hệ: mệnh đề quan hệ xác định và mệnh đề quan hệ không xác định.

1. Mệnh đề quan hệ xác định (Defining relative clauses): là mệnh đề được dùng để xác định danh từ đứng trước nó. Mệnh đề xác định là mệnh đề cần thiết cho ý nghĩa của câu, không có nó câu sẽ không đủ nghĩa. Nó được sử dụng khi danh từ là danh từ không xác định và không dùng dấu phẩy ngăn cách nó với mệnh đề chính.

2. Mệnh đề quan hệ không hạn định (Non-defining relative clauses): là mệnh đề cung cấp thêm thông tin về một người, một vật hoặc một sự việc đã được xác định. Mệnh đề không xác định là mệnh đề không nhất thiết phải có trong câu, không có nó câu vẫn đủ nghĩa. Nó được sử dụng khi danh từ là danh từ xác định và được ngăn cách với mệnh đề chính bằng một hoặc hai dấu phẩy (,) hay dấu gạch ngang (-)

Ex: Dalat, which I visited last summer, is very beautiful. (Non-defining relative clause)

Note: để biết khi nào dùng mệnh đề quan hệ không xác định, ta lưu ý các điểm sau:

  • Khi danh từ mà nó bổ nghĩa là một danh từ riêng
  • Khi danh từ mà nó bổ nghĩa là một tính từ sở hữu (my, his, her, their)
  • Khi danh từ mà nó bổ nghĩa la một danh từ đi với this , that, these, those

IV. Một số lưu ý trong mệnh đề quan hệ

1. Nếu trong mệnh đề quan hệ có giới từ thì giới từ có thể đặt trước hoặc sau mệnh đề quan hệ (chỉ áp dụng với whom và which.)

  • Ex: Mr. Brown is a nice teacher. We studied with him last year.

→ Mr. Brown, with whom we studied last year, is a nice teacher.
→ Mr. Brown, whom we studied with last year, is a nice teacher.

2. Có thể dùng which thay cho cả mệnh đề đứng trước.

  • Ex: She can‟t come to my birthday party. That makes me sad. → She can‟t come to my birthday party, which makes me sad.

3. Ở vị trí túc từ, whom có thể được thay bằng who.

  • Ex: I‟d like to talk to the man whom / who I met at your birthday party.

4. Trong mệnh đề quan hệ xác định , chúng ta có thể bỏ các đại từ quan hệ làm túc từ: whom, which.

  • Ex: The girl you met yesterday is my close friend. The book you lent me was very interesting.

5. Các cụm từ chỉ số lượng some of, both of, all of, neither of, many of, none of ... có thể được dùng trước whom, which và whose.

  • Ex: I have two sisters, both of whom are students. She tried on three dresses, none of which fitted her.

B. LUYỆN TẬP

I. Fill in the blanks with WHO, WHICH or THAT:

1. The men _______ lives next-door are English.

2. The dictionary _______ you gave me is very good.

3. Do you know the girls _______ are standing outside the church?

4. The police are looking for the thieve _______ got into my house last night.

5. The chocolate _______ you like comes from the United States.

6. I have lost the necklace _______ my mother gave me on my birthday.

7. A burglar is someone _______ breaks into a house and steals things.

8. Buses _______ go to the airport run every half hour.

9. I can't find the key _______ opens this door.

10. I gave you a book _______ had many pictures.

11. I don't like the boy _______ Sue is going out with.

12. Did you see the beautiful dress _______ she wore yesterday.

13. The man _______ she is going to marry is very rich.

14. This is the bank _______ was robbed yesterday.

15. He wore a mask _______ made him look like Mickey Mouse.

II. Fill in the blanks with WHO, WHICH or WHOSE:

1. He arrived with a friend ______ waited outside in the car.

2. The man ______ mobile was ringing did not know what to do.

3. The car ______ the robbers escaped in was a BMW.

4. The woman ______ daughter was crying tried to calm her down.

5. The postman ______ works in the village is very old.

6. The family ______ car was stolen last week is the Smiths.

7. The cowboy ______ is wearing a red shirt looks very funny.

8. A bus is a big car ______ carries lots of people.

9. The volunteers, ______ enthusiasm was obvious, finished the work quickly.

10. Children ______ like music are often good at mathematics.

11. The engineers ______ designed the building received an award.

12. The girl ______ recited the poem is my niece.

13. The townspeople, ______ pride in their community is well- known, raised enough money to build a new town hall.

14. The Pacific Ocean, ______ might have been crossed by raft during the Stone Age, is the world's largest ocean.

15. The newspaper to ______ we subscribe is delivered regularly.

III. Combine These Pairs Of Sentences Using Relative Pronouns:

1. The first boy has just moved. He knows the truth.

.................................................. .................................................. ......

2. I don't remember the man. You said you met him at the canteen last week.

.................................................. .................................................. ......

3. The only thing is how to go home. It make me worried.

.................................................. .................................................. ......

4. The most beautiful girl lives city. I like her long hair very much.

.................................................. .................................................. ......

5. He was Tom. I met him at the bar yesterday.

.................................................. .................................................. ......

6. The children often go swimming on Sundays. They have much free time then.

.................................................. .................................................. ......

7. They are looking for the man and his dog. They have lost the way in the forest.

.................................................. .................................................. ......

8. The tree has lovely flowers. The tree stands near the gate of my house.

.................................................. .................................................. ......

9. My wife wants you to come to dinner. You were speaking to my wife

.................................................. .................................................. ......

10. The last man has just returned from the farm. I want to talk to him at once.

.................................................. .................................................. ......

11. The students will be awarded the present. The students' reports are very valuable.

.................................................. .................................................. ......

12. The book was a lovely story. I was reading it yesterday.

.................................................. .................................................. ......

13. The botanist will never forget the day. He found a strange plant on that day.

.................................................. .................................................. ......

14. Someone is phoning you. He looked for you three hours ago.

.................................................. .................................................. ......

15. The man works for my father's company. The man's daughter is fond of dancing.

.................................................. .................................................. ......

IV. Viết lại câu sử dụng mệnh đề quan hệ thích hợp.

1. He worked for a woman. She used to be an artist.

2. They called a doctor. He lived nearby.

3. I wrote an email to my sister. She lives in Italy.

4. Linh liked the waiter. He was very friendly.

5. We broke a car. It belonged to my uncle.

6. Ba dropped a cup. It was new.

7. Nam loves books. They have happy endings.

8. I live in a city. It is in the north of Vietnam.

9. The man is in the class. He is wearing a blue hat.

10. The woman works in a hospital. She is from India.

11. My sister has four sons. She lives in Japan.

12. The man was rude. He was wearing a red shirt.

13. The phone is on the table. It belongs to An.

14. The TV got broken. It was my grandfather’s.

15. The radio was stolen. It was bought 35 years ago.

16. The girl gave Binh his phone. She is his daughter.

17. This is the laptop. My mother has just bought it.

18. That’s the man. His car is a Ferrari.

19. I know the woman. She lives upstairs.

20. It’s the dog. I always talk to him at night.

21. She opened the cupboard. She kept her best glasses in there.

22. This is the house. General Giap lived here.

23. The flight was canceled. We were going to take it.

24. I saw the lady in the shop. She was Vicki Zhao.

25. The man is a director. His dog is sick.

26. My violin is missing. It was my birthday present.

27. I first learn English from a book. I’ve just reread it.

28. The police officer has just arrested a man. He robbed the bank.

29. These are the shoes. I bought them in HCMC.

V. Hãy nối hai câu bằng dạng rút gọn của mệnh đề quan hệ.

1. She bought the car. Her father had recommended it.

2. He lost the pen. I had given it to him.

3. We called the delivery company. Nga often uses it.

4. Lam met a girl. I used to employ her.

5. Chi called the lawyer. My mother knows him.

6. He brought a woman. I worked with her last year.

7. We employed the pianist. Hai introduced her.

8. The cake is on the table. I bought it.

9. The book belongs to Lan. An found it under the chair.

10. The food was delicious. Huy cooked the food.

11. The bike was stolen. My parents gave me the bike.

12. The man was arrested. I reported him to the police.

13. The teacher was right. Ngan asked him about her problem.

14. The writer was very pretty. My brother dated her.

15. The secretary is in the office. Dzung likes her.

16. We ate the food. I bought the food.

ĐÁP ÁN

I. Fill in the blanks with WHO, WHICH or THAT:

1. The men ___who___ lives next-door are English.

2. The dictionary ___which___ you gave me is very good.

3. Do you know the girls ___who___ are standing outside the church?

4. The police are looking for the thieve ___who___ got into my house last night.

5. The chocolate ___which___ you like comes from the United States.

6. I have lost the necklace ___which___ my mother gave me on my birthday.

7. A burglar is someone ___that___ breaks into a house and steals things.

8. Buses ___that___ go to the airport run every half hour.

9. I can't find the key ___which___ opens this door.

10. I gave you a book ___which___ had many pictures.

11. I don't like the boy ___who___ Sue is going out with.

12. Did you see the beautiful dress ___which___ she wore yesterday.

13. The man ___whom___ she is going to marry is very rich.

14. This is the bank ___which___ was robbed yesterday.

15. He wore a mask ___which___ made him look like Mickey Mouse.

II. Fill in the blanks with WHO, WHICH or WHOSE:

1. He arrived with a friend ___who___ waited outside in the car.

2. The man ___whose___ mobile was ringing did not know what to do.

3. The car ___which___ the robbers escaped in was a BMW.

4. The woman ___whose___ daughter was crying tried to calm her down.

5. The postman ___who___ works in the village is very old.

6. The family ___whose___ car was stolen last week is the Smiths.

7. The cowboy ___who___ is wearing a red shirt looks very funny.

8. A bus is a big car ___which___ carries lots of people.

9. The volunteers, ___whose___ enthusiasm was obvious, finished the work quickly.

10. Children ___who___ like music are often good at mathematics.

11. The engineers ___who___ designed the building received an award.

12. The girl ___who___ recited the poem is my niece.

13. The townspeople, ___whose___ pride in their community is well-known, raised enough money to build a new town hall.

14. The Pacific Ocean, ___which___ might have been crossed by raft during the Stone Age, is the world's largest ocean.

15. The newspaper to ____which___ we subscribe is delivered regularly.

III. Combine These Pairs Of Sentences Using Relative Pronouns:

1. The first boy who knows the truth has just moved.

2. I don't remember the man whom you said you met at the canteen last week.

3. The only thing which make me worried is how to go home.

4. The most beautiful girl, whose long hair I like very much, lives in this city.

5. The man whom I met at the bar yesterday was Tom.

6. The children often go swimming on Sundays when they have much free time.

7. They're looking for the man and his dog that have lost the way in the forest.

8. The tree which stands near the gate of my house has lovely flowers.

9. My wife, whom you were speaking to, wants you to come to dinner.

10. I want to talk to the last man who has just returned from the farm.

11. The students whose report are very valuable will be awarded the present.

12. The book which I was reading yesterday was a lovely story.

13. The botanist will never forget the day when he found a strange plant.

14. The person who looked for you three hours ago is phoning you.

15. The man whose daughter is fond of dancing works for my father's company.

IV.

1. He worked for a woman who used to be an artist.

2. They called a doctor who lived nearby.

3. I wrote an email to my sister who lives in Italy.

4. Linh liked the waiter who was very friendly.

5. We broke a car that belonged to my uncle.

6. Ba dropped a cup which was new.

7. Nam loves books that have happy endings.

8. I live in a city that is in the north of Vietnam.

9. The man who is wearing a blue hat is in the class.

10. The woman who is from India works in a hospital.

11. My sister who lives in Japan has four sons.

12. The man who was wearing a red shirt was rude.

13. The phone that belongs to An is on the table.

14. The TV that was my grandfather’s got broken.

15. The radio that was bought 35 years ago was stolen.

16. The girl who gave Binh his phone is his daughter.

17. This is the laptop which my mother has just bought.

18. That’s the man whose car is a Ferrari.

19. I know the woman who lives upstairs.

20. It’s the dog that I always talk to at night.

21. She opened the cupboard where she kept her best glasses.

22. This is the house where General Giap lived.

23. The flight that we were going to take was canceled.

24. The lady that I saw in the shop was Vicki Zhao.

25. The man whose dog is sick is a director.

26. The violin that is missing was my birthday present.

27. I’ve just reread the book which I first learned English from.

28. The police officer has just arrested the man who robbed the bank.

29. These are the shoes that I bought in HCMC.

V. Hãy nối hai câu bằng dạng rút gọn của mệnh đề quan hệ.

1. She bought the car her father had recommended.

2. He lost the pen I had given him.

3. We called the delivery company Nga often uses.

4. Lam met a girl I used to employ.

5. Chi called the lawyer my mother knows.

6. He brought a woman I worked with last year.

7. We employed the pianist Hai introduced.

8. The cake I bought is on the table.

9. The wallet An found under the chair belongs to Lan.

10. The food Huy cooked was delicious.

11. The bike my parents gave me was stolen.

12. The man I reported to the police was arrested.

13. The teacher Ngan asked about her problem was right.

14. The writer my brother dated was very pretty.

15. The secretary Dzung likes is in the office.

16. We ate the food I bought.

Trên đây là toàn bộ nội dung của Mệnh đề quan hệ - Relative clauses và bài tập có đáp án. Mời bạn đọc tham khảo thêm nhiều tài liệu ôn tập Tiếng Anh cơ bản như: Tài liệu luyện kỹ năng Tiếng Anh cơ bản, Ôn tập Ngữ pháp Tiếng Anh, Luyện thi Tiếng Anh trực tuyến,... được cập nhật liên tục trên VnDoc.com. 

Đánh giá bài viết
53 96.397

Video đang được xem nhiều

Thi THPT Quốc Gia Xem thêm