Chuyên đề Reported speech - Câu tường thuật trong tiếng Anh

English Grammar: Reported Speech

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I. Lời nói trực tiếp và lời nói gián tiếp

1. Lời nói trực tiếp: là sự lặp lại chính xác những từ của người nói.

- Lời nói trực tiếp được đặt trong dấu ngoặc kép và sau động từ chính có dấu phẩy (,) hoặc dấu hai chấm (:).

- Đôi khi mệnh đề chính cũng có thể đặt sau lời nói trực tiếp.

Ex: “I don’t like this party” Bill said.

2. Lời nói gián tiếp (indirect/reported speech)là lời tường thuật lại ý của người nói, đôi khi không cần phải dung đúng những từ của người nói.

Ex: Bill said that he didn’t like that party.

II. Lời nói gián tiếp với động từ giới thiệu ở hiện tại

Ex: My teacher of Geography says, “The Sun rises in the East”

My teacher of Geography says (that) the Sun rises in the East.

S1 + says (that) + S2 + V’ + O’

III. Lời nói gián tiếp với động từ giới thiệu ở quá khứ

Ex: Nam said, “I am doing my homework now.

Nam said (that) he was doing his homework then.

* Câu trần thuật trong lời nói gián tiếp (Statements in reported speech)

Statement

Reported speech

 

 

S + V + O

said/ to Sb (O) + That + S2V2

S1 + told (O) + That + S2V2

talked + about st

* Note: Có thể sử dụng một số ĐT dẫn sau: thought, announced, explained, complained, believed…

EX: They said, “We’ll return to Paris next month”

- They said they would return to Paris the month after.

Những quy tắc biến đổi từ câu trực tiếp sang câu gián tiếp

Rule (QTắc)

Direct speech (Trực tiếp)

Reported speech (Gián tiếp)

 

 

 

1. Verbs

(Động từ)

Present simple (V/ Vs/es)

Past simple (Ved)

Present progressive (is/ am/ are+Ving)

Past progressive (was/ were+Ving)

Present perfect (have/ has+VpII)

Past perfect (had+VPII)

Past simple (Ved)

Past perfect (had +VpII)

Past progressive (was/ were +Ving)

Past progressive/

Past perfect progressive (had +been +Ving)

Past perfect

Past perfect

Future simple (will +V)

Future in the past (would +V)

Near future (is/ am/ are +going to+V)

Was/ were +going to +V

2. Modal verbs

Will

Can

May

Must

Would

Could

Might

Must/Had to

3. Adverb

of place

This

That

These

Those

Here

There

4. Adverb

of time

Now

Then

Today

That day

Yesterday

The day before/ the previous day

The day before yesterday

Two days before

Tomorrow

The day after/ the next (following)day

The day after tomorrow

Two days after/ in two days’ time

Ago

Before

This week

That week

Last week

The week before/ the previous week

Last night

The night before

Next week

The week after/ the following week

5. Subject

/Object

I/ me

She, he/ Her, him

We/ our

They/ us

You/ you

I, we/ me, us

* Câu mệnh lệnh, câu yêu cầu, câu đề nghị, lời khuyên….trong lời nói gián tiếp ( Orders, requests, offers, advice… in indirect speech)

Order

Reported speech

 

 

V + O

Asked/ told + Object (+ not) + To-infinitive

S1 + Offered/ recommended (+ Object) + To-infinitive

* Note: Có thể sử dụng một số ĐT dẫn sau: commanded, requested, begged, promised, advised, invited, reminded…

* Câu hỏi trong lời nói gián tiếp (Questions in reported speech)

Questions

Reported speech

1. Yes/No questions

Auxiliary + S + V + O?

(Do/ does/ did/ had/ will)

S1 + asked (+ Object) + If/ whether + S2V2

2. Wh – questions

WH + Auxiliary + S + V + O?

S1 + asked (+ Object) + WH + S2V2

* Note: Có thể sử dụng một số ĐT dẫn sau: inquired, wondered, wanted to know…

* Lưu ý, trong những trường hợp sau động từ không biến đổi

1. Lời nói trực tiếp diễn tả một sự thật hiển nhiên, một chân lí hay một thói quen ở hiện tại

EX: 1. My father said “New York is bigger than London”

- My father said that New York is bigger than London

2. The teacher said, “The moon moves around the earth”

- The teacher said that the moon moves around the earth.

3. He said, “ I always drink milk for breakfast”

- Peter said that he always drinks milk for breakfast.

2. Lời nói trực tiếp có các động từ tình thái như: could, would, should, might, ought to, used to, had better.

EX: My friend said, “You had better contact with her”

- My friend said that I had better contact with her.

3. Lời nói trực tiếp là câu điều kiện loại II hoặc câu điều kiện loại II.

He said, “ If I were you, I wouldn’t wait”

- He said that if he were me he wouldn’t wait.

4. Thời quá khứ đơn hoặc quá khứ tiếp diễn có thời gian các định hoặc thuộc mệnh đề chỉ thời gian.

1. She said, “My mother arrived on Monday.

- She said that her mother arrived on Monday.

2. He said, “When I saw them, they were playing tennis.”

- He said when he saw them they were playing tennis.

Bài tập

I. Turn these sentences into Reported speech.

1. She said,” I can’t find my umbrella”

___________________________________________________________

2. They said, “We are learning English now”

___________________________________________________________

3. “ My friend is coming next week”, Tom said.

___________________________________________________________

4. “ I’ll help my mum with housework this weekend”, she said

___________________________________________________________

5. “We shall overcome this difficulty”, they said

___________________________________________________________

6. “ My father is a doctor here”, my friend said

___________________________________________________________

7. “I am going on holiday tomorrow”, the boy said to his neighbor.

___________________________________________________________

8. “ You will have to finish all these exercises before next week”, the teacher said to his students

___________________________________________________________

9. “ I came back here early yesterday,” she said.

___________________________________________________________

10. “ I’ve broken the vase,” she said

___________________________________________________________

11. “ I will never see you again,” the boy said to the girl.

___________________________________________________________

12. He said to her, “You are my friend.”

___________________________________________________________

13. Johnny said to his mother, “I don’t know how to do this exercise.”

___________________________________________________________

14. “We are waiting for the school bus”, said the chidren.

___________________________________________________________

15. Marry said, “My father died a year ago”.

___________________________________________________________

16. John said, “I have finished studying my lesson”.

___________________________________________________________

17. Mary said, “I can not go to the movies with you, John”.

___________________________________________________________

18. “I shall expect to see you next Wednesday.” Mary said to her friend.

___________________________________________________________

19. He said, “I don’t know what happened.”

________________________________________________

20. She said, “I went to the doctor yesterday.”

________________________________________________

21. He said, “I have a toothache.”

________________________________________________

22. She said, “I’ll write him a prescription.”

________________________________________________

23. They said, “We’re going to the drugstore.”

________________________________________________

24. He said, “The doctor gave me some pills.”

________________________________________________

25. She said, “I go to the supermarket every day.”

________________________________________________

26. He said, “I have received the envelope.”

________________________________________________

27. They said, “We visited Cannery Row.”

________________________________________________

28. She said, “I feel very sick.”

________________________________________________

29. He said, “I bought some popcorn.”

________________________________________________

30. They said, “We’re flying to California.”

________________________________________________

31. He said, “I’m cutting off the main valve.”

________________________________________________

32. Nam said, “my uncle often plants the vegetables in the afternoon.”

________________________________________________

33. “My uncle will not plant the vegetables tomorrow afternoon”, she said.

________________________________________________

34. “Mr and Mrs Pike have just read these newspapers”, Nga said.

________________________________________________

35. She said, “I often listen to music at night.”

________________________________________________

36. Lan’s mother said, “My daughter usually brushes her teeth before meals.”

________________________________________________

37. They said, “We have to do the assignments now.”

________________________________________________

38. Lan says, “My sister seldom rides a bike to school.”

________________________________________________

39. They said, “Our teacher sometimes explains the difficult lesson.”

________________________________________________

40. Nam said, “I am doing my homework now.”

________________________________________________

II. Change the sentences below into direct speech.

1. My mother told me that she was sad then.

___________________________________________________________

2. One of my friends said that she liked learning English with her teacher.

___________________________________________________________

3. The doctor told me that I could leave the hospital that day.

___________________________________________________________

4. The film director said that she was willing to work then.

___________________________________________________________

5. The teacher told his students that he would be busy the following month.

___________________________________________________________

6. Tom invited me to his birthday party.

______________________________________________

7. She said the doctor had written her a prescription.

________________________________________________

8. He said that he had a toothache.

________________________________________________

9. She said she went to the museum every day.

________________________________________________

10. They said they were going to the supermarket.

________________________________________________

11. She said that the doctor had given her some pills.

________________________________________________.

III Change the following sentences into reported speech:

1. She said to him: “give me another glass of wine”.

________________________________________________

2. She said to me: “bring me a book”.

________________________________________________

3. Mother said to him: “open the window please!”.

________________________________________________

4. He said to me: “shut the door after you”.

________________________________________________

5. The captain said to them: “wait here still I come back”.

________________________________________________

6. She told her: “take it and come with me”.

________________________________________________

7. He said to me: “don’t come back before one o’clock”.

________________________________________________

8. My mother told me: “don’t forget to look at the door”.

________________________________________________

9. He said to his brother: “don’t open the window, open the door”.

________________________________________________

10. He said to the girl: “don’t sit on my bed, sit on this chair please!”.

________________________________________________

11. The teacher said: “I am a teacher”.

________________________________________________

12. She said to me “I have a big house”

________________________________________________

13. She said to me : “I am going to the party”.

________________________________________________

14. She said to me: “I gave him your letter.”

________________________________________________

15. She said: “I have finished my work.”

________________________________________________

16. Nam said: “I am not a pupil.”

________________________________________________

17. Nam said: “I am going to Ho Chi Minh city.”

________________________________________________

18. He said to me: “I have gone to your house.”

________________________________________________

19. She says: “I knew your difficulties.”

________________________________________________

20. He said to me: “I gave him your present.”

________________________________________________

21. He asked me: “Who is Oliver Twist?”

________________________________________________

22. My mother asked me: “What‘s the matter with you?”

________________________________________________

23. I asked him: “Which book do you find?”

________________________________________________

24. He asked me: “When do you finish your work?”

________________________________________________

25. Mai asked me: “Why didn’t you come?”

________________________________________________

26. She says: “She had a wonderful evening.”

________________________________________________

27. The teacher tells us: “You should learn harder and harder.”

________________________________________________

28. My mother says that: “We are having a party tomorrow.”

________________________________________________

29. I say to him: “Our teacher will come on time.”

________________________________________________

30. Mai‘s parents say that: “We are going to invite twenty guests to the party.

________________________________________________

IV. Change the following sentences into reported speech:

1. “Open the door,” he said to them.

-He told them________________________________________________

2. “Where are you going?” he asked her.

-He asked her where________________________________________________

3. “Which way did they go?” he asked.

-He asked________________________________________________

4. “Bring it back if it doesn’t fit”, I said to her.
-I told________________________________________________

5. “Don’t try to open it now,” she said to us.

-She told________________________________________________

6. “Is it going to be a fine day today?” I asked her.

-I asked her________________________________________________

7. “He’s not at home”, she said.

-She said that________________________________________________

8. “Is the bus station far away?” the girl asked.

-The girl wanted to know________________________________________________

9. “Don’t stay out late, Ann” Tom said.

-Tom told Ann________________________________________________

10. “Please let me borrow your car,” he said to her.

-He asked________________________________________________

11. “Jean, have you seen my gloves?” Thomas asked.

-Thomas asked Jean________________________________________________

12. Don’t leave the window open, Mary”, I said.

-I told Mary________________________________________________

13. “I’ll have a cup of tea with you,” she said.

She said that________________________________________________

14. “I’ll pay him if I can” she said.

-She said that________________________________________________

15. “What are you going to do next summer?” she asked.

- She asked us________________________________________________

16. “I’ll phone you tomorrow,” he told Jack.

-He told Jack that________________________________________________

17. “Can I sit beside you, Jean?” Tom asked.

-Tom asked Jean________________________________________________

18. “I want a camera for my birthday,” he said.

-He said that________________________________________________

19. “Don’t keep the door locked,” he said to us.

-He told us________________________________________________

20. “How long are you going to stay?” I asked him.

-I asked him how long________________________________________________

21. “Are you going by train?” she asked me.

-She wanted to know________________________________________________

22. “Don’t use too much hot water,” she said to us.

-She asked us________________________________________________

23. “Will you come to my party?” she said to me.

-She invited me________________________________________________

24. “Don’t do it again,” she said to them.

She told them________________________________________________

25. “ Did Mr Brown send the potatoes to you?” she asked.

-She asked________________________________________________

26. “Don’t get your shoes dirty, boys,” she said.

-She told.________________________________________________

27. “What do you want for lunch today, Peter?” Mary asked.

-Mary asked________________________________________________

28. “Can I borrow your typewriter, Janet?” asked Peter.

- Peter asked if ________________________________________________

29. “Why didn’t I get a computer before?” thought the office manager.

-The office manager wondered________________________________________________

30. “You had better not lend him any more money, Elizabeth,’’ said John.

-John advised Elizabeth________________________________________________

31. “You stole my best cassette, Amanda!” said John.

-John accused________________________________________________

32. “ You damaged my bicycle, John!” said Mary.

-Mary accused________________________________________________

33. “When was your little boy born?” said the nurse to Mrs. Bingley.

-The nurse asked Mrs. Bingley________________________________________________

34. “You should take more exercise, Mr. Robert,” the doctor said.

-The doctor advised________________________________________________

35. “Will I find a job?”, Tim said to himself.

-Tim wondered________________________________________________

36. “I’m sorry I gave you the wrong number,” said Paul to Susan.

-Paul apologized________________________________________________

37. “When is the first day of your holiday, Peter?” Martha asked.

- Martha asked Peter when________________________________________________

38. “Can I have a new bicycle?” said Anna to her mother.

-Anna asked________________________________________________

39. “Don’t leave the house until I get back, William”, his mother said.

- William’s mother told________________________________________________

40. “Don’t bite your nails,” said Mrs. Rogers to her son.

-Mrs. Rogers told________________________________________________

41. “I’ve seen the film three times, Mary” said George.

-George said________________________________________________

42. “I’m sorry, Angela,” said Martin, “I’m afraid I’ve damaged your car.

-Martin apologized________________________________________________

43. “Have you had enough for lunch?” the landlady asked us.

-The landlady asked________________________________________________

44. “John, please don’t tell anyone my new address,” said Mary.

-Mary asked________________________________________________

45. “Breakfast will not be served after 9. 30” said the notice.

-The notice said that________________________________________________

46. “Where is the best place to buy souvenirs?”

-I asked________________________________________________

47. “Don’t forget to bring your passport with you tomorrow”

- She reminded me ________________________________________________

48. “Do not write on the wall,” said the teacher to the boys.

-The teacher told the boys________________________________________________

49. “How many jobs have you had since 2000?” the interviewer asked Mr. Simpson.

- The interviewer asked________________________________________________

50. “Why didn’t you report the incident to the police?” the officer asked the frightened witness.

- The officer wanted to know________________________________________________

Còn tiếp ..

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