Rút gọn mệnh đề quan hệ

Tài liệu Giản lược mệnh đề quan hệ Tiếng Anh dưới đây nằm trong bộ đề Ôn tập Ngữ pháp Tiếng Anh cơ bản mới nhất trên VnDoc.com. Tài liệu Tiếng Anh gồm 6 cách Rút gọn mệnh đề quan hệ trong Tiếng Anh khác nhau như: Rút gọn mệnh đề bằng cụm Cụm V-ing, cụm V-ed, To inf, cụm danh từ, mệnh đề tính từ có dạng be và tính từ/ cụm tính từ, mệnh đề tính từ thành tính từ ghép, ... và bài tập về rút gọn mệnh đề quan hệ có đáp án.

A. Lý thuyết rút gọn mệnh đề quan hệ

Có 6 cách rút gọn câu dùng mệnh đề quan hệ trong tiếng Anh.

I. Rút gọn mệnh đề quan hệ bằng cách dùng participle phrases (V-ing phrase)

Nếu động từ trong mệnh đề quan hệ ở thể chủ động (active), ta dùng cụm hiện tại phân từ (present participle phrase) thay cho mệnh đề đó. Thao tác: Bỏ đại từ quan hệ và trợ động từ, đưa động từ chính về nguyên mẫu và thêm đuôi – ing.

Ex: The man who is standing there is my brother => The man standing there is my brother

Do you know the boy who broke the windows last night? => Do you know the boy breaking the windows last night?

II. Rút gọn bằng cách dùng past participle phrase (V-ed phrase)

Nếu động từ trong mệnh đề quan hệ ở thể bị động (passive) ta dùng cụm quá khứ phân từ (past participle phrase).

Ex: The books which were written by Nam Cao are interesting => The books written by Nam Cao are interesting.

The students who were punished by teacher are lazy =>The students punished by teacher are lazy.

III. Rút gọn mệnh đề quan hệ bằng to infinitive

Dùng khi danh từ đứng trước có các chữ sau đây bổ nghĩa: the only, the first, the second,… the last, so sánh nhất, mục đích.

Ex: Tom is the last person who enters the room = Tom is the last person to enter the room.

John is the youngest person who takes part in the race =>John is the youngest person to take part in the race.

Động từ là HAVE/ HAD

Ex: I have much homework that I must do => I have many homework to do.

Đầu câu có HERE (BE), THERE (BE)

Ex: There are six letters which have to be written today => There are six letters to be written today.

IV. Rút gọn mệnh đề quan hệ dùng cụm danh từ (đồng cách danh từ)

Dùng khi mệnh đề quan hệ tình từ có dạng: S + BE + DANH TỪ /CỤM DANH TỪ/CỤM GIỚI TỪ Cách làm: bỏ who ,which và be.

Ex: Football, which is a popular sport, is very good for health => Football, a popular sport, is very good for health.

Do you like the book which is on the table? => Do you like the book on the table?

V. Mệnh đề rút gọn tính từ có dạng be + tính từ/cụm tính từ

Có 2 công thức rút gọn:

Công thức 1: Bỏ who, which…to be -> giữ nguyên tính từ phía sau.

Điều kiện 1: Nếu phía trước that là đại từ phiếm chỉ như something, anything, anybody…

Ex: There must be something that is wrong => There must be something wrong.

Điều kiện 2: Có dấu phẩy phía trước và phải có từ 2 tính từ trở lên.

Ex: My grandmother, who is old and sick, never goes out of the house => My grandmother, old and sick, never goes out of the house.

Công thức 2: Những trường hợp còn lại ta đem tính từ lên trước danh từ.

Ex: My grandmother, who is sick, never goes out of the house => My sick grandmother never goes out of the house.

I buy a hat which is very beautiful and fashionable => I buy a very beautiful and fashionable hat.

Tuy nhiên nếu cụm tính từ gồm cả danh từ ở trong nó thì ta chỉ còn cách dùng V-ing mà thôi.

Ex: I met a man who was very good at both English and French => I met a man being very good at both English and French.

Tóm lại cách rút gọn loại này khá phức tạp vì nó tùy thuộc vào đến 3 yếu tố: có một hay nhiều tính từ – danh từ đứng trước có phải là phiếm chỉ không có dấu phẩy hay không

VI. Mệnh đề tính từ thành tính từ ghép

Cách làm: Ta sẽ rút gọn mệnh đề thành một tính từ ghép bằng cách tìm trong mệnh đề một số đếm và danh từ đi sau nó, sau đó ta để chúng kế nhau và thêm dấu gạch nối ở giữa. Đem tính từ ghép đó ra trước danh từ đứng truớc who, which…- những phần còn lại bỏ hết.

Lưu ý:

+ Danh từ không được thêm “s”

+ Chỉ dùng được dạng này khi mệnh để tính từ có số đếm

+ Các cụm như tuổi thì sẽ viết lại cả 3 từ và gạch nối giữa chúng (two years old à two-year-old)

Ex: I have a car which has four seats => I have a four-seat car. I had a holiday which lasted two days => I had a two-day holiday.

B. Phương pháp làm bài tập Rút gọn mệnh đề quan hệ

Khi học thì ta học từ dễ đến khó nhưng khi làm bài thì ngược lại phải suy luận từ khó đến dễ.

Bước 1:

- Tìm xem mệnh đề tính từ nằm chỗ nào

Bước này cũng dễ vì mệnh đề tính từ thường bắt đầu bằng WHO, WHICH, THAT…

Bước 2 :

Bước này chủ yếu là giảm từ mệnh đề xuống cụm từ, tuy nhiên cách suy luận cũng phải theo thứ tự nếu không sẽ làm sai.

Ví dụ:

This is the first man who was arrested by police yesterday.

Mới nhìn ta thấy đây là câu bị động ,nếu vội vàng thì sẽ dễ dàng biến nó thành :

This is the first man arrested by police yesterday sai

Nhưng đáp án đúng phải là :

This is the first man to be arrested by police yesterday đúng

Lưu ý:

1. Nhìn xem mệnh đề có công thức S + BE + CỤM DANH TỪ không ? Nếu có áp dụng công thức IV.

2. Nếu không có công thức đó thì xem tiếp trước who which… có các dấu hiệu first ,only…v..v không ,nếu có thì áp dụng công thức III (to inf. ) lưu ý thêm xem 2 chủ từ có khác nhau không ( để dùng for sb )

3 .Nếu không có 2 trường hợp trên mới xét xem câu đó chủ động hay bị động mà dùng VING hay P.P.

C. Bài tập Rút gọn mệnh đề quan hệ có đáp án

Bài 1. Change the adjective clauses to adjective phrases:

1. Do you know the woman who is coming towards us?

2. I come from a city that is located in the southern part of the country.

3. The children who attend that school receive a good education

4. The fence which surrounds our house is made of wood.

5. Be sure to follow the instructions that are given at the top of the page.

6. They live in the house that was built in 1890.

7. The papers that are on the table belong to Patrica.

8. The man who is talking to the policeman is my uncle.

9. The number of students who have been counted is quite high.

10. George is the man who was chosen to represent the committee at the convention.

Đáp án

1. Do you know the woman coming towards us?

2. I come from a city located in the southern part of the country.

3. The children attending that school receive a good education.

4. The fence surrounding our house is made of wood.

5. Be sure to follow the instructions given at the top of the page.

6. They live in the house built in 1890.

7. The papers on the table belong to Patrica.

8. The man talking to the policeman is my uncle.

9. The number of students counted is quite high.

10. George is the man chosen to represent the committee at the convention.

Bài 2. Replace the underlined clauses by an infinitive or infinitive phrase:

1. I don’t like him playing in the street. I wish we had a garden that he could play in

2. He simply loves parties. He is always the first who comes and the last who leaves.

3. The last person who leaves the room must turn off the lights.

4. The first man who was interviewed was entirely unsuitable.

5. I’ve got a bottle of wine but I haven’t got anything that I could open it with.

Đáp án

1. I don’t like him playing in the street. I wish we had a garden for him to play.

2. He simply loves parties. He is always the first to come and the last to leave.

3. The last person to leave the room must turn off the lights.

4. The first man to be interviewed was entirely unsuitable.

5. I’ve got a bottle of wine but I haven’t got anything to open it.

Bài 3. REWRITE THE RELATIVE CLAUSES BY USING PHRASES

1. The man who’s talking to the policeman has just returned home from Paris.

2. The novel which was bought by my sister is very interesting.

3. The students who make noise in class will be punished.

4. Passengers who travelled on this bus bought their tickets in books.

5. Do you see the notice which warns people not to enter the military zone?

6. The stairs which lead to the cellar are rather slippery.

7. We had a river in which we could swim.

8. You are the last person who saw her alive.

9. The pilot was the only one who survived the air crash.

10. He was the second man who was killed in this way.

11. Neil Armstrong was the first man who walked on the moon.

12. Here are some accounts that you must check.

13. I’ve got a bottle of wine but I haven’t got anything that I could open it with.

14. I have some letters that I must write.

15. He simply loves parties. He is always the first who comes and the last who goes.

16. The Queen Elizabeth is the largest ship which has been built on the Clyde.

17. My grandmother, who is old and sick, never goes out of the house.

18. Kuala Lumpur, which is the capital city of Malaysia, is a major trade center in Southeast Asia.

19. Emma Thompson is the most famous actress who will appear on stage here.

20. We have some picture books that children can read.

21. I come from a city that is located in the southern part of the country.

Đáp án

1. The man talking to the policeman has just returned home from Paris.

2. The novel bought by my sister is very interesting.

3. The students making noise in class will be punished.

4. Passengers travelling on this bus bought their tickets in books.

5. Do you see the notice warning people not to enter the military zone?

6. The stairs leading to the cellar are rather slippery.

7. We had a river to swim.

8. You are the last person to see her alive.

9. The pilot was the only one to survive the air crash.

10. He was the second man to be killed in this way.

11. Neil Armstrong was the first man to walk on the moon.

12. Here are some accounts to check.

13. I’ve got a bottle of wine but I haven’t got anything to open it with.

14. I have some letters to write.

15. He simply loves parties. He is always the first to come and the last to go.

16. The Queen Elizabeth is the largest ship to be built on the Clyde.

17. My old and sick grandmother never goes out of the house.

18. Kuala Lumpur, the capital city of Malaysia, is a major trade center in Southeast Asia.

19. Emma Thompson is the most famous actress to appear on stage here.

20. We have some picture books to be read by children. .

21. I come from a city located in the southern part of the country.

Bài 4. Rút gọn mệnh đề quan hệ trong tiếng Anh

1.The man who is standing there is a clown.

2. The envelop which lies on the table has no stamp on it.

3. Benzene, which was discovered by Faraday, became the starting point in the manufacture of many dyes, perfumes and explosives.

4. My grandmother, who is old and sick, never goes out of the house.

5. The student don't know how to do exercise which were given by the teacher yesterday.

6. The diagrams which were made by young Faraday were sent to Sir Humphry Davy at the end of 1812.

7. The gentleman who lives next door to me is a well-known orator.

8. All the astronauts who are orbiting the earth in space capsules are weightless.

9. All students don't hand in their papers will fail in the exam.

10. I saw many houses that were destroyed by the storm.

11. The street which leads to the school is very wide.

12. The system which is used here is very successful.

13. John, who teaches my son, is my neighbor.

14. Trains which leave from this station take an hour to get to London.

15. The candidates who are sitting for the exam are all from Vietnam.

16. We are driving on the road which was built in 1980.

17. Customers who complain about the service should see the manager.

18. The city which was destroyed during the war has now been rebuilt.

19. My brother, who met you yesterday, works for a big firm.

20. The vegetable which are sold in this shop are grown without chemicals.

Đáp án

1.The man standing there is a clown.

2. The envelop lies on the table has no stamp on it.

3. Benzene, discovered by Faraday, became the starting point in the manufacture of many dyes, perfumes and explosives.

4. My grandmother, being old and sick, never goes out of the house.

5. The student don't know how to do exercise given by the teacher yesterday.

6. The diagrams made by young Faraday were sent to Sir Humphry Davy at the end of 1812.

7. The gentleman living next door to me is a well-known orator.

8. All the astronauts orbiting the earth in space capsules are weightless.

9. All students not handing in their papers will fail in the exam.

10. I saw many houses destroyed by the storm.

11. The street leading to the school is very wide.

12. The system used here is very successful.

13. John, teaching my son, is my neighbor.

14. Trains leaving from this station take an hour to get to London.

15. The candidates sitting for the exam are all from Vietnam.

16. We are driving on the road built in 1980.

17. Customers complaining about the service should see the manager.

18. The city destroyed during the war has now been rebuilt.

19. My brother, meeting you yesterday, works for a big firm.

20. The vegetable sold in this shop are grown without chemicals.

Bài 5. Use reduced relative clauses in place of the relative clauses

1. I was the only one who realized him.

2. I have some homework which I must do tonight.

3. Our solar system is in a galaxy that is called the Milky Way.

4. I was awakened by the sound of a laughter which came from the room which was next to mine at the motel.

5. There are six reports which have to be typed today.

Đáp án

1. I was the only one to realize him.

2. I have some homework to do tonight.

3. Our solar system is in a galaxy called the Milky Way.

4. I was awakened by the sound of a laughter coming from the room next to mine at the hotel.

5. There are six reports to be typed today.

Bài 6. Bài tập rút gọn mệnh đề quan hệ trong tiếng Anh

1.The man who is standing there is a clown.

2. The envelop which lies on the table has no stamp on it.

3. Benzene, which was discovered by Faraday, became the starting point in the manufacture of many dyes, perfumes and explosives.

4. My grandmother, who is old and sick, never goes out of the house.

5. The student don't know how to do exercise which were given by the teacher yesterday.

6. The diagrams which were made by young Faraday were sent to Sir Humphry Davy at the end of 1812.

7. The gentleman who lives next door to me is a well-known orator.

8. All the astronauts who are orbiting the earth in space capsules are weightless.

9. All students don't hand in their papers will fail in the exam.

10. I saw many houses that were destroyed by the storm.

11. The street which leads to the school is very wide.

12. The system which is used here is very successful.

13. John, who teaches my son, is my neighbor.

14. Trains which leave from this station take an hour to get to London.

15. The candidates who are sitting for the exam are all from Vietnam.

16. We are driving on the road which was built in 1980.

17. Customers who complain about the service should see the manager.

18. The city which was destroyed during the war has now been rebuilt.

19. My brother, who met you yesterday, works for a big firm.

20. The vegetable which are sold in this shop are grown without chemicals.

Đáp án

1.The man standing there is a clown.

2. The envelop lies on the table has no stamp on it.

3. Benzene, discovered by Faraday, became the starting point in the manufacture of many dyes, perfumes and explosives.

4. My grandmother, being old and sick, never goes out of the house.

5. The student don't know how to do exercise given by the teacher yesterday.

6. The diagrams made by young Faraday were sent to Sir Humphry Davy at the end of 1812.

7. The gentleman living next door to me is a well-known orator.

8. All the astronauts orbiting the earth in space capsules are weightless.

9. All students not handing in their papers will fail in the exam.

10. I saw many houses destroyed by the storm.

11. The street leading to the school is very wide.

12. The system used here is very successful.

13. John, teaching my son, is my neighbor.

14. Trains leaving from this station take an hour to get to London.

15. The candidates sitting for the exam are all from Vietnam.

16. We are driving on the road built in 1980.

17. Customers complaining about the service should see the manager.

18. The city destroyed during the war has now been rebuilt.

19. My brother, meeting you yesterday, works for a big firm.

20. The vegetable sold in this shop are grown without chemicals.

Bài 7. Complete the sentences with a verb from the first box in participle form together with an expression from the second.

find · chat · stand · pile out · wag · be involved · play · be most interested

in the robbery · with the yoyo · on the phone · of the cinema · on the street

its tail · at the bus stop · in buying

1. The woman _______________ was in a hurry so she hailed a taxi.

2. I think the dog _______________is a Jack Russel.

3. The crowds _______________looked very happy.

4. The people _______________our house were the Joneses.

5. The men _______________have all been arrested.

6. The wallet _______________was handed in to the police.

7. The girl over there _______________ is the new secretary.

8. The young boy _______________ is my brother.

Đáp án

1 - standing at the bus stop

2 - wagging its tail

3 - piling out of the cinema

4 - most interested in buying

5 - involved in the robbery

6 - found on the street

7 - chatting on the phone

8 - playing with the yoyo

Rewrite the sentences, where possible replacing the underlined relative clauses with their shortest possible forms. 

1. The woman who is talking to your mother is my aunt.

2. The man who is standing by the window is my uncle.

3. All those who do not need to buy tickets please go straight in.

4. The first vineyard which I ever saw was in Germany.

5. Wikipedia, which was launched in 2001, is one of the great internet successes.

6. Animals which share the savannah include wildebeest and gazelles.

7. All the candidates who were selected were given a second interview.

8. All those who passed the test were given a second interview

9. LOL, which stands for Laughing Out Loud, is now in the OED.

10. The bouquet was made from flowers which were grown locally.

11. This the man who I was talking to you about.

12. The man who won yesterday's lottery lives next door.

Đáp án

1 - The woman talking to your mother is my aunt.

2 - The man standing by the window is my uncle.

3 - All those not needing to buy tickets please go straight in.

4 - The first vineyard I ever saw was in Germany.

5 - Wikipedia, launched in 2001, is one of the great internet successes.

6 - Animals sharing the savannah include wildebeest and gazelles.

7 - All the candidates selected were given a second interview.

8 - All those passing the test were given a second interview.

9 - LOL, standing for Laughing Out Loud, is now in the OED.

10 - The bouquet was made from flowers grown locally.

11 - This is the man I was talking to you about.

12 - The man who won yesterday's lottery lives next door.

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